2 THE FIVE THEMES OF GEOGRAPHY LocationPlaceHuman-Environment InteractionMovementRegions
3 LOCATION Where are we? Relative Location Absolute Location You are HereLOCATION Where are we?Absolute LocationA latitude and longitude (global location) or a street address (local location).Paris France is 48o North Latitude and 2o East Longitude.The White House is located at 1600 Pennsylvania Ave.Relative LocationDescribed by landmarks, time, direction or distance. From one place to another.Go 1 mile west on main street and turn left for 1 block.
4 Map ScaleDetails are omitted because of space. Level of detail and amount of area covered on a map depend on scaleSmall scale map: depicts a large area; little detail.Ex: world mapLarge scale map: depicts a small area; greater detailsEx: city map
5 Map ScaleRatio/fraction: numerical ratio btw distance on map and Earth’s surfaceEx: 1:24,000 or 1/24,000 (1 is the unit on map=24,000 of the same unit on the ground)Written scale: describes relation btw map and Earth in wordsEx: “1 inch equals 1 mile” = 1 inch on map equals 1 mile on surfaceGraphic scale: bar lone marked to show distance on Earth’s surfaceEx: use ruler to measure distance on map and hold against bar ling and read correlating number
6 Projection Method of transferring locations on Earth Advantages and disadvantages of maps and globes?
7 Projection Distortion may occur (especially in world maps) 1) Shape Map appear more elongated or squat2) DistanceIncrease or decrease3) Relative SizeOne area seems larger than another map but in reality it is small4) Direction
8 ProjectionMercator: pros—little shape distortion, consistent direction, map rectangular. Cons—heavy distortion at the poles. High latitude appears larger than reality.Robinson: pros—useful for oceans; cons—land areas are smallerThe West Wing: Why are we changing maps?
9 What is it like there, what kind of place is it? Physical CharacteristicsLandforms (mountains, rivers, etc.), climate, vegetation, wildlife, soil, etc.Human CharacteristicsWhat are the main languages, customs, and beliefs.How many people live, work, and visit a place.
10 Place Names Toponym: name given to a place Founder, religious, landscape, physical environmentSite: Physical character of a placeClimate, water sources, topography, soil, vegetation, elevation.Situation: Location of a place relative to other places.Relative location
11 HUMAN-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION How do humans and the environment affect each other? Also known as cultural ecologyWe depend on it.People depend on the Tennessee River for water and transportation.We modify it.People modify our environment byheating and cooling buildings for comfort.We adapt to it.We adapt to the environment by wearingclothing suitable for summer (shorts) andwinter (coats), rain and shine.
12 MOVEMENT How are people, goods, ideas moved from place to place? Human MovementTrucks, Trains, PlanesInformation MovementPhones, computer ( ), mailIdea MovementHow do fads move from place to place?TV, Radio, Magazines
13 MovementDiffusion: Process of a characteristic spreading across space.Hearth: where an innovation originates.Relocation diffusion: spread of an idea through physical movement of people.Ex: Spanish speaking culture in Miami, FL. Spread of AIDS across continents.
14 Expansion Diffusion: spread of a feature from one place to another in snowball fashion. Hierarchical diffusion: from person or nodes of authority or power to other persons or places. Ex: hip hop musicContagious diffusion: rapid, widespread diffusion of a characteristic through population. Ex: Ideas on the internet.Stimulus diffusion: spread of principle; characteristic fails to diffuse. Ex: computers sold
15 REGIONS How are Regions similar to and different from other places? Formal Regions (uniform)Regions defined by governmental or administrative boundaries (States, Countries, Cities)Regions defined by similar characteristics (Corn Belt, Rocky Mountain region, Chinatown).Functional Regions (node)Regions defined by a function (newspaper service area, cell phone coverage area).Vernacular Regions (perceptual)Regions defined by peoples perception (middle east, the south, etc.)