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THE 5 THEMES OF GEOGRAPHY. THE FIVE THEMES OF GEOGRAPHY  Location  Place  Human-Environment Interaction  Movement  Regions.

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Presentation on theme: "THE 5 THEMES OF GEOGRAPHY. THE FIVE THEMES OF GEOGRAPHY  Location  Place  Human-Environment Interaction  Movement  Regions."— Presentation transcript:


2 THE FIVE THEMES OF GEOGRAPHY  Location  Place  Human-Environment Interaction  Movement  Regions

3 LOCATION Where are we?  Absolute Location  A latitude and longitude (global location) or a street address (local location).  Paris France is 48 o North Latitude and 2 o East Longitude.  The White House is located at 1600 Pennsylvania Ave.  Relative Location  Described by landmarks, time, direction or distance. From one place to another.  Go 1 mile west on main street and turn left for 1 block. You are Here

4 Map Scale  Details are omitted because of space. Level of detail and amount of area covered on a map depend on scale  Small scale map: depicts a large area; little detail.  Ex: world map  Large scale map: depicts a small area; greater details  Ex: city map

5 Map Scale  Ratio/fraction: numerical ratio btw distance on map and Earth’s surface  Ex: 1:24,000 or 1/24,000 (1 is the unit on map=24,000 of the same unit on the ground)  Written scale: describes relation btw map and Earth in words  Ex: “1 inch equals 1 mile” = 1 inch on map equals 1 mile on surface  Graphic scale: bar lone marked to show distance on Earth’s surface  Ex: use ruler to measure distance on map and hold against bar ling and read correlating number

6 Projection  Method of transferring locations on Earth  Advantages and disadvantages of maps and globes?

7 Projection  Distortion may occur (especially in world maps)  1) Shape  Map appear more elongated or squat  2) Distance  Increase or decrease  3) Relative Size  One area seems larger than another map but in reality it is small  4) Direction

8 Projection  Robinson: pros— useful for oceans; cons—land areas are smaller  Mercator: pros— little shape distortion, consistent direction, map rectangular. Cons—heavy distortion at the poles. High latitude appears larger than reality. The West Wing: Why are we changing maps?

9 PLACE What is it like there, what kind of place is it?  Human Characteristics  What are the main languages, customs, and beliefs.  How many people live, work, and visit a place.  Physical Characteristics  Landforms (mountains, rivers, etc.), climate, vegetation, wildlife, soil, etc.

10 Place Names  Toponym: name given to a place  Founder, religious, landscape, physical environment  Site: Physical character of a place  Climate, water sources, topography, soil, vegetation, elevation.  Situation: Location of a place relative to other places.  Relative location

11 HUMAN-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION  How do humans and the environment affect each other? Also known as cultural ecology  We depend on it.  People depend on the Tennessee River for water and transportation.  We modify it.  People modify our environment by heating and cooling buildings for comfort.  We adapt to it.  We adapt to the environment by wearing clothing suitable for summer (shorts) and winter (coats), rain and shine.

12 MOVEMENT  How are people, goods, ideas moved from place to place?  Human Movement  Trucks, Trains, Planes  Information Movement  Phones, computer (email), mail  Idea Movement  How do fads move from place to place? TV, Radio, Magazines

13 Movement  Diffusion: Process of a characteristic spreading across space.  Hearth: where an innovation originates.  Relocation diffusion: spread of an idea through physical movement of people.  Ex: Spanish speaking culture in Miami, FL. Spread of AIDS across continents.

14  Expansion Diffusion: spread of a feature from one place to another in snowball fashion.  Hierarchical diffusion: from person or nodes of authority or power to other persons or places. Ex: hip hop music  Contagious diffusion: rapid, widespread diffusion of a characteristic through population. Ex: Ideas on the internet.  Stimulus diffusion: spread of principle; characteristic fails to diffuse. Ex: computers sold

15 REGIONS  How are Regions similar to and different from other places?  Formal Regions (uniform)  Regions defined by governmental or administrative boundaries (States, Countries, Cities)  Regions defined by similar characteristics (Corn Belt, Rocky Mountain region, Chinatown).  Functional Regions (node)  Regions defined by a function (newspaper service area, cell phone coverage area).  Vernacular Regions (perceptual)  Regions defined by peoples perception (middle east, the south, etc.)

16 Formal Regions

17 Functional Regions

18 Vernacular Regions

19 Remembering the 5 themes  If you can’t remembering what they are just ask MR. HELP!!!  M – Movement  R – Regions  HE – Human Environment interaction  L – Location  P - Place

20 Your assignment  Describe you and your family using the 5 Themes of Geography.  Make sure you use every theme.  Type your biography, double space.

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