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 An appraiser has to have a basic, working knowledge of the legal descriptions, especially for the area where they work  If an appraisal requires.

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Presentation on theme: " An appraiser has to have a basic, working knowledge of the legal descriptions, especially for the area where they work  If an appraisal requires."— Presentation transcript:

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7  An appraiser has to have a basic, working knowledge of the legal descriptions, especially for the area where they work  If an appraisal requires knowledge beyond the working knowledge the appraiser needs to rely on professional surveyor or abstractor.

8  Three common methods to legally describe real property;  Rectangular survey system  Metes and bounds system  Lot and block system

9  Most common system in the US  RSS was originally implemented in US May 20, 1785 through legislation passed by the Continental Congress for disposal of land in the Western Territory  Sometimes referred to as Government survey system or Government System

10  Each state divided into arbitrary north- south lines called Meridians and into arbitrary east-west lines called Baselines  These are arbitrary and not related to geographical meridians  Each meridian is unique and crossed by its own baseline

11  Every 6 miles from the principal meridian another line was drawn; resulting columns are called ranges  Every 6 miles from the baseline another line was drawn and the resulting space was called a township.  Each range and township are 6 miles square

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14  Arkansas, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, N and S Dakota use 5 th Principal Meridian established in 1815

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16 Base Line Meridian Township Range

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22  Each section has 640 acres and each acre contains 43,560 square feet  Always to remember to read the location backwards when finding a parcel with the rectangular system

23  Every 24 miles there are corrections lines to adjust so that the townships fit with the curvature of the earth.  Quarter sections on the north and west boundary take up excess or shortages in the township. These are known as fractional or government lots.

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26 One Section of Land is 640 Acres - One Mile by One Mile (5280' x 5280')

27  W½NE¼, NE¼NE¼ & 6a. W½SE¼NE¼  W½NW¼, SE¼NW¼ & NW¼SW¼  E½NW¼

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29  Based on early land descriptions in America; used natural or man made objects  From Hartford, CN 1812 court records for land description. “Commencing at a heap of stone about a stone’s throw from a certain small clump of alders, near a brook running down off a certain marked white birch….”

30  Metes describe the direction from one reference point to another as well as the distance between the points  Bounds refer to the Point of Beginning (POB) of a description (this is also the point of return) and all intermediate points.  From a permanent marker the parcel is described in distance (lineal measure) and bearing (angle) from that point

31  Distance usually measured in feet to nearest tenth of one-hundredth of a foot  Chain = 66.0 feet  Rod = 16.5 feet (5.5 yards)  Link = 7.92 inches

32  Bearing measured in degrees, minutes and seconds  For legal descriptions we use 90 degree segments  60 minutes (60’) in one degree  60 seconds (60”) in each minute

33  A metes and bounds description moves from point to point following the course laid out in the description.  Courses are in degrees, minutes and seconds of an angle from the north or south.

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35  There have been Permanent Reference Marks (Bench Marks) established (4.5 inch disks in steel or concrete  The bench marks are referenced to each other by distance and direction  Key point is to have a starting point that can be found again.

36  N80 0’0” East, 152 feet to the point of beginning;  Thence S80 degree 0’0” East feet;  Thence S15 degree 0’0” West, feet; Thence S85 degrees 0’0” West feet;  Thence N4 degrees 10’58” East feet to the point of beginning

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38  This is for land ready for subdivision into homes and businesses into blocks and lots.  Simplest and most convenient to describe small lots or tracts within a subdivision  Metes and bounds to survey an show the parcel; parcel assigned a lot number, Each block given a block number and the tract given a name or number

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40  Vertical land description; measured in terms of vertical measurements. Used for air rights or subsurface  Topographic maps; contour maps used for land that will be developed and soil to be moved, etc.


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