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C902.R PPT-1 Welcome to the International Right of Way Association’s Course 902 Property Descriptions

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C902.R PPT-2 Introductions Who you are... What you do... Where you work... How long...

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Write, Plot, Use and Interpret Using Several Methods ➣ Metes & Bounds & Subdivisions ➣ Centerline & Point Descriptions ➣ Public Land Survey System ➣ State Plane Coordinates Objectives C902.R PPT-3

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Objectives C902.R PPT-4 Understand Terms and Nomenclature Use Engineering Tools Calculate Property Areas

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Schedule 8:00 – 12:00: Property Description Basics Metes & Bounds Centerline Descriptions 1:00- 4:00: Point Descriptions Subdivisions Public Land Survey System State Plane Coordinates 4:00-5:00:Summary, Review Half-Hour Quiz C902.R PPT-5

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Background Information Oldest Civilizations Surveyed Land “ CURSED BE HE THAT REMOVETH HIS NEIGHBORS LANDMARK” (Deuteronomy 27:17) C902.R PPT-6

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Monuments Natural - Created by Nature Artificial – Human made Problem - Lack of Permanency Boundary Marker C902.R PPT-7

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Boundary Records Deeds, Maps, Plats, Etc. In Registry of Deed Office Deeds Indexed Alphabetically, by Years, and by: Grantee - Purchaser Grantor - Seller C902.R PPT-8

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Property Description Format Caption/Preamble Identifies Local Area Body Describes Specific Tract Reservations List Rights Reserved by Grantor Exceptions Rights Previously Conveyed C902.R PPT-9

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Background Information Land is Commodity Unit is “Parcel” or “Tract” Precisely Describe Land Enable Location of Property Boundaries in Future Transfer Title Purpose & Use of Property Descriptions C902.R PPT-10

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M etes & Bounds Measurement & Descriptions of Boundaries Metes – Direction and Distance Course/Call - Bearing and Distance to Monument or Adjoiner Bounds – Call to Adjoining Owners Uses Narration C902.R PPT-11

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Metes & Bounds Old Deeds - Usually Followed Stream or Ridge Example: “Bounded on the North by Big Creek, on the northeast by Cedar Swamp, on the East by a stone wall along lands of Ezra Stone, and on the South and West by the Turnpike Road.” C902.R PPT-12

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Metes & Bounds Lengths and Bearings Given - Corners Marked and Described Point of Beginning - Must Begin at Known Point May Need to Start at Point of Commencement Must Close: Error of Closure – “e” Completely Encircle Property, Usually Clockwise C902.R PPT-13

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Metes & Bounds Distance Measurements 1 Chain = 66 Feet = 100 Links Sketch of Property 1 Rod = 1 Perch = 1 pole = 16.5 Feet = 1/4 Chain 1 Mile = 5, 280 Feet = 80 Chains Plot Scale Depends on Amount of Detail Shown and Size of Paper C902.R PPT-14

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Exercise #1 - Metes & Bounds C902.R PPT-15 N30°52’W 159.0' S53°08’W 234.7' S84°W 98.3' N87°43'E 367.4'

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Metes & Bounds Boundary Description First Line From P.O.C. to P.O.B. Each Line – Direction & Length Must Close - Return to P.O.B. Refer to Monuments & Adjoiners Include Area: 1 Acre = 43,560 S.F. C902.R PPT-16

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Metes and Bounds - Directions Compass Bearings Deflection from North or South Deflection Angles From Preceding Line Azimuths Total Clockwise Angle From True North or South All Expressed in Degrees (°), Minutes (’), Seconds (”) C902.R PPT-17

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Exercise #1 - Metes & Bounds C902.R PPT-18 N30°52’W 159.0' S53°08’W 234.7' S84°W 98.3' N87°43'E 367.4' 118°35’ 145°25’ 30°52’

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PP = S52°45'E S41°20‘W N67°27‘W Exercise #2 - Bearings C902.R PPT-19

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Metes & Bounds Superiority of Calls General Rules to Determine Intent Order of Importance Set by Court 1. Monuments 2. Adjoiners 3. Distances 4. Bearings 5. Areas C902.R PPT-20

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I.P.#2 Exercise # 3 - Superiority of Calls 87’ 57’ 57°30’ C902.R PPT-21 I.P.#1

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Definitions of North True North Origin at Geometric North Pole Observe Sun or Polaris (North Star) True North Lines Converge C902.R PPT-22

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Definitions of North Magnetic North Indicated by Magnetic Compass Magnetic Declination From True North East - Points East of True North West - Points West of True North Local Magnetic Attraction in Area C902.R PPT-23

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Datum North Definitions of North Bearings Established by Previous Survey or Map C902.R PPT-24

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Error of Closure – “e” Metes & Bounds Error is Distance From Ending Point of Description to P.O.B. Last Line Should Return to P.O.B. C902.R PPT-25

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Precision Metes & Bounds Expressed as 1:XXX Length of Error Compared to Total Length of Property Lines One Indication of Quality of Property Description 1: Total Length of PL/e C902.R PPT-26

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Northing = N/S Distance Plotting by Coordinates (Length of Property Line) x (Cosine of Bearing Angle) Easting = E/W Distance (Length of Property Line) x (Sine of Bearing Angle) C902.R PPT-27

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Example: Plotting by Coordinates A-B: N = 405 X Cos 57° = 220.6’ “A” “B” “C” “N57°E - 405’ “S64°E - 372’ E = 405 X Sin 57° = 339.7’ B-C: N = 372 X Cos 64° = 163.1’ E = 372 X Sin 64° = 334.4’ A-C: N = = 57.5’ E = = 674.1’ 220.6’ 163.1’ 339.7’ 334.4’ C902.R PPT-28

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Exercise # 4 - Coordinates “B - D” = (650 2 ) + (450 2 ) “B - D” = 791’ C902.R PPT-29

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Exercise # 5 - Northings & Eastings LINE NORTHING EASTING A-B B-C C-D D-A C902.R PPT-30

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Units of Measurement Area Calculations 1 Ac = 43,560 SF = Square Foot, Acre, Square Rods, Square Chains 1 Ac = 160 Sq. Rods = 10 Sq. Chains 10 Ch. x 10 Ch. = Acres Ft. Sq. 10 C902.R PPT-31

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Break Into Geometric Shapes Area Calculation Method Compute or Scale Distances Calculate Individual Areas Add or Subtract Areas to Get Total Area C902.R PPT-32

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Parallelogram (Opposite Sides Parallel) Area Calculations B Area = Base x Height BB H C902.R PPT-33

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Triangle B Area = B H B Base x Height 2 H B C902.R PPT-34 Area Calculations

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Area = ( ) B 1 + B 2 2 Trapezoid: (2 Sides Parallel) B1B1 B1B1 H B2B2 B2B2 C902.R PPT-35 Area Calculations X H

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Exercise # 6 - Areas AREACALCULATIONS AREA 1: 2: TOTAL AREA = ( ) 2 (928.4 x 255.6) Ac. 2.7 Ac. 8.9 Ac. x (394.4) = ÷ = C902.R PPT ’ 255.6’ 450.0’ 928.4’

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Exercise # 7 - Irregular Area AREACALCULATIONS AREA 1: 2: TOTAL AREA: ( ) 2 ( ) Ac. 1.2 Ac. 0.8 Ac. x (204) = = 204’ 162’ 106’ 400’ 283’ 355’ 290’ 62’ x (162) = ( ) 2 x (106) = (290 x 62) Ac. 3.8 Ac C902.R PPT-37

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Centerline Description Centerline Path is Described Usually by Metes and Bounds Calibrated in “Stations” Must be Defined, Described, Referenced, and Recorded R/W Width Specified Area = Centerline Length x Width of R/W C902.R PPT-38

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Exercise # 8 - Centerline Description x 50 =25,300 SF = 0.58 Ac.Area = ( ) Area = (Length x Width) C902.R PPT-39

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Point Description Acquisition of Strip Parcels for Highways Right of Way - Irregular Shape Property Description Centerline Divided into Stations Centerline Fully Described, Referenced, and Recorded Offset - Perpendicular Distance to Each Point - Radial Distance in a Curve C902.R PPT-40

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Exercise # 9 - Point Description AREACALCULATIONS AREA 1: 2: 3. TOTAL AREA: ( ) 2 8,500 SF 3,938 SF x 200 = (45 x175) = 2 (150 x 40) = 2 3,000 SF. 15,438 SF = 0.35 Ac o o o o 150’ 200’ 175’ 40 ’ 45’ C902.R PPT-41

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Subdivision Descriptions Subdivision Land Partitioned Into Lots, Blocks, Tracts, Parcels Plat Prepared Showing: Boundary Lines and Monuments Individual Lot Dimensions Individual Lot Numbers C902.R PPT-42

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Plat is Named and Signed Submitted, Approved and Recorded Reference to Lot Number Property Descriptions Subdivision Name & Location of Official Plat C902.R PPT-43 Subdivision Descriptions

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Exercise#10 - Portion of Lot C902.R PPT-44

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Public Land Survey System Few Natural Monuments Existed Established by Continental Congress 35 Geographical Regions (Systems) Each System has Name or Number 30 of 50 States Also Called US Rectangular Grid System Florida Only East Coast State in System C902.R PPT-45

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C902.R PPT-46 Public Land Survey System

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Initial Point (I.P.) - Origin One for Each System Marked and Monumented Referenced by Latitude & Longitude C902.R PPT-47

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Public Land Survey System Standard Lines North–South Line thru I.P. East – West line thru I.P. Base Line (B.L.) Principal Meridian (P.M.) I.P. o B.L. P.M. N C902.R PPT-48

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Standard Parallels Lines Parallel to BL Called Correction Lines East & West Lines At 24 Mile Intervals B.L. P.M. I.P. 24 MI. 3 RD S.P.N. 2 ND S.P.N. 1 ST S.P.N. 24 MI. 24 MI. 1 ST S.P.S. 2 ND S.P.S. 3 RD S.P.S. 24 MI. 24 MI. 24 MI. C902.R PPT-49

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Guide Meridians 24 3 RD G.M.W. 2 ND G.M.W.1 ST G.M.W.1 ST G.M.E.2 ND G.M.E.3 RD G.M.E. 24 Due North Lines 24 Mile Intervals, Along Each S. P. Converge to North Pole C902.R PPT-50

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Quadrangle Formed by Standard Parallels and Guide Meridians North Line is 24 Miles Long, Less Convergence in 24 Miles Approximately 24 M.S., 576 S.M. 24 Miles Less Than 24 Miles East, West & South Lines are 24 Miles Long C902.R PPT-51

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24 Miles Townships, Tiers and Ranges Townships Lines - 6 Mile Intervals Parallel to B. L. Range Lines - Due North Lines from S.P. at 6 Mile Intervals 24 Miles 6 mi. Approximately 6 Miles Square, 36 Square Miles 16 Per Quadrangle Less than 24 Miles 6 mi. 36 sq. miles C902.R PPT-52

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Quadrangle=16 Townships Townships Tiers are Numbered North and South of Base Line Ranges Numbered East and West of Principal Meridian T4N R3W Ranges West 24 Miles Townships North 6 mi. 24 miles less convergence in 24 miles Initial Point T3N R4W T3N R2W T1N R4W 6 mi. C902.R PPT-53

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Townships, Tiers and Ranges Township Location Designated by: Township Number North or South of Base Line Name or Number of Specific System Range Number East or West of Principal Meridian C902.R PPT-54

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Townships, Tiers and Ranges T1N T8S R4E R4W C902.R PPT-55

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Sections Township divided into 36 Sections Numbered Begin with NE Corner Going Serpentine, W and E Ch. x 80 Ch. = 1 S.M. Contains 640 Ac C902.R PPT-56

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Section Description Property Description of Section Section Number, Township Number, Range Number, Name of Principal Meridian C902.R PPT-57

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Half Sections W ½ E ½ N½S½N½S½ West ½, East ½, 5280’ X 2640’ = 320 Ac. or North ½, South ½ 80 Ch. X 40 Ch. = 320 Ac. C902.R PPT-58

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40 Ch. X 40 Ch. = 160 Ac NW ¼ NE ¼ NW ¼, NE ¼, 2640’ X 2640’ = 160 Ac. or SW ¼, SE ¼ SW ¼ SE ¼ C902.R PPT-59 Quarter Sections

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NW1/4 NE1/4 SE1/4 1320’ X 1320’ = 40 Ac. SW 1/4 SE 1/4 NW 1/4 NE 1/4 SE1/4 NW1/4 NE1/4 SE1/4 NW1/4 NE1/4 SE1/4 1 Mile Smallest Statutory Units 20 Ch x 20 Ch = 40 Ac. C902.R PPT-60 Quarter-Quarter Sections

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Aliquot Parts Further Partitioning Quarter-Quarter Sections Property Descriptions Describe by Letters and Numbers Identify Aliquot Part of Section, Section Number, Township Number, Range Number, and Name of Principal Meridian C902.R PPT-61

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Exercise #11 - Public Land Survey System Part A: Parcel Description Area “A” “B” “C” “D” S1/2 NE1/4 of Section 6 80 Ac E1/2 SW1/4 of Section 7 80 Ac NW 1/4 SE1/4 of Section 8 40 Ac NE 1/4 of Section Ac C902.R PPT-62

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Fractional Units Township Not Perfect Square Convergence Prevents 36 Identical Parts Make as Many Regular Units as Possible Quarter (½ Mi. Sq.) = 160 Ac. Half-Quarter (¼ x ½ Mi. Sq.) = 80 Ac. Quarter-Quarter ( ¼ x ¼ Mi. Sq.) = 40 Ac. C902.R PPT-63

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Fractional Unit Discrepancies Deficiency or Surplus Placed: Sections 1 through 6 Northern ½ of North Row, Western ½ of West Column, Sections 6, 7, 18, 19, 30 & 31 Irregular Units Subdivided into Government Lots C902.R PPT-64

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Government Lots Remainder Subdivided into Consecutively Numbered Lots: Sections 7,18, 19, 30 & 31: 4 Lots, North to South Sections 1 - 5: 4 Lots, East to West Section 6: 7 Lots, Counterclockwise Make as Many Regular Subdivisions as Possible C902.R PPT-65

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Property Descriptions Series of Letters and Numbers Identify Government Lot Number Section Number Township Number, Range Number Name of Principal Meridian C902.R PPT-66

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Exercise #12 – Government Lots Parcel Description “E” “F” Government Lot #3 of Section 18 Government Lot #5 of Section C902.R PPT-67

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Description Formats Fractional Acreage E½ NE¼ of Section 17 Linear Measurement E 60 Acres of NE¼ of Section 17 E 20 Chains of NE¼ of Section 17 C902.R PPT-68

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Exercise #13 – Fractional Sections C902.R PPT-69

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Area Calculation 1 Section = 1 S.M. = 640 Ac Fractional Section Areas (in Acres) Multiply Fractions by 640 Example: Area of SE¼ NE¼ : ¼ x ¼ x 640 = 80 Ac C902.R PPT-70

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Errors in Original Surveys Original Set Corners Stand as True Corners Caused by: Crude Instruments Field Conditions & Bad Weather Poor Work C902.R PPT-71

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State Plane Coordinate System Based on “X” & “Y” Grid For Each State Point Located by: Northing - “Y” Coordinate Easting - “X” Coordinate Considers Size & Shape of Earth C902.R PPT-72

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Description: Specify Coordinates of Each Corner Four Networks: Two Horizontal Two Vertical NAD 27, NAD 83 NGVD 29, NAVD 88 C902.R PPT-73 State Plane Coordinate System

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Exercise #14 - State Plane Coord NORTHING EASTING NORTHING EASTING ,859 10,093 40,055 10,451 C902.R PPT-74

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39,859 10,093 40,055 10,451 Description: BEGINNING at the southern corner of Parcel 2, at 39,718 N, 10,186 E; thence, in a northwesterly direction to a point at 39,859 N, 10,093 E; thence, in a northeasterly direction to a point at 40,055 N, 10,451 E; thence, in a southeasterly direction to a point at 39,928 N, 10,552 E; thence, southwesterly, to the point of beginning, and containing 1.0 Ac., more or less. C902.R PPT-75 Exercise #14 - State Plane Coord

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Sources of Uncertainties Poor Equipment or Instruments Careless Observations Local Magnetic Attraction Angles / Bearings Affected by: Not Measured Horizontally Magnetic Declination Distance Measurement Errors C902.R PPT-76

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Public Land Survey System Uncertain Water Monuments Monuments Lines Not Run North or East / West North Lines Run Parallel to P.M. Lost Monuments Lost Roads: Abandoned, Widened or Relocated C902.R PPT-77 Sources of Uncertainties

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Surveyor’s Legal Authority Arbiter between Property Owners Cannot Fix or Set Boundaries Disputes Settled Only by Court Can Establish “Agreed Line” Detective - Surveyor Seeks Facts Expert Witness, Not Judge C902.R PPT-78

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Summary: Property Descriptions Property Descriptions Define Boundaries Eliminate Controversy Metes & Bounds Bearing & Distance Monument Corners C902.R PPT-79

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Point Description Determine Station and Offset to Each Point in R/W Centerline Descriptions Locate Centerline and State R/W Width Subdivision Refer to Lot Number & Location of Record Plat C902.R PPT-80 Summary: Property Descriptions

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Section Subdivisions Public Land Survey System Initial Point & Standard Lines Quadrangles, Townships, & Sections Half-Section Quarter-Section Quarter-Quarter Sections Government Lots Area: Fractions in Description x 640 C902.R PPT-81 Summary: Property Descriptions

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Sources of Uncertainties State Plane Coordinates Northings & Eastings Human & Equipment Arbiter & Detective, NOT Judge Area: Geometric Shapes Surveyor’s Legal Authority C902.R PPT-82 Summary: Property Descriptions

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Woo-Hoo! C902.R PPT-83

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