Presentation on theme: "Dr. Schiller: AP History of Art"— Presentation transcript:
1 Dr. Schiller: AP History of Art Etruscan Art:Italy Before the Romans
2 Who were the Etruscans?people who occupied the middle of Italy (modern-day Tuscany)wiped out by the Romansinfluenced by, but different from, Greek art
3 During 8th and 7th centuries: Etruscans were sea-faring tradersBy 6th c., numerous Etruscan cities, but they never united, so no real Etruscan “nation” or “kingdom”Only semblance of unity was primarily:--Common linguistic ties--Religious beliefs and practicesthe lack of unity left them easy prey for the Romans
4 Etruscan sculpture, painting, and architecture: --provided the models for early Roman art and architecture--had an impact on the art of the Greek colonies in Italy
5 Etruscan ArtStarted to like luxury items incorporating Eastern motifsSame period as Greek Orientalizing periodFollowed by the Archaic Period
6 Had iron, tin, copper, and silver Early Etruscan art: Orientalizing ArtGreat mineral wealth of Etruria transformed Etruscan society during 7th c. BCEHad iron, tin, copper, and silverCities with rich mines (like Cerveteri) could import foreign goods
7 [Gardner plate 9-1]Fibula with Orientalizing lions, from the Regolini-Galasi Tomb, Cerveteri, Italy, ca BCE.Gold, approx. 1’ ½“ high.
8 This is the most spectacular luxury item fibula—a clasp or safety pin used to fasten a women’s gown at the shoulderThis one is a unique shape and giant sizethe 5 lions that walk across the gold surface were borrowed from the Orient (Asia)techniques also came from Asia—--repoussé--granulation
9 from a 7th c. BCE tomb of wealthy family at Cerveteri tomb had bronze cauldrons and gold jewelry of Etruscan manufacture and Orientalizing style
10 Jewelry in the tomb also included: a golden pectoral that covered the deceased woman’s chest, and2 gold circlets that might be earrings, though large enough to be braceletsOstentatious display is frequently the hallmark of newly-acquired wealth (certainly the case in 7th c. Etruria)
11 Archaic Art and Architecture even while emulating Greek architecture, always a distinctive Etruscan temperamentmost Archaic Etruscan art departs markedly from its prototypes, especially religious architectureEtruscan temples superficially owe much to Greece but there are more differences than similaritiesUsually only the foundations survived, because of the building materials they usedBut the foundations reveal the plans of the building; the archeological record is supplemented by the Romanarchitect Vitruvius’s account of Etruscan temple design in his treatise on classical architecture written near the end of the 1st c. BCE
12 Stokstad plate 6-3Model of a typical. Etruscan temple of the 6th c. BCE, as described by Vitruvius.
13 resembles Greek gable-roofed temples Typical Archaic Etruscan templeresembles Greek gable-roofed templesbut constructed not of stone but of wood and sun-dried brick with terracotta decorationonly one narrow staircase at the center of the templetemple sat on a high podiumwide roof overhead
14 columns were only in the front, creating a deep porch that took up about ½ of the podium clear which is the frontGreek temples’ front and rear were indistinguishable and there were steps and peripteral colonnades on all sidesReason:--Not meant to be seen as a sculptural mass from outside and all directions--Instead, meant tofunction primarily asan ornate home forgrand statues ofEtruscan gods
15 Other temple differences: Columns resembled Doric but-were made of woodunflutedhad basesBecause the superstructure was so light, Etruscan columns were much more widely spaced than Greek columns
16 Etruscan temples had 3 cellas—one for each of their chief gods: --Tinia (Zeus/Jupiter)--Uni (Hera/Juno)--Menvra (Athena/Minerva)rare to find pedimental statuarybut narrative statuary (terracotta instead of stone) was placed on the peaks of Etruscan temple roofs
17 Life-size image of Apulu (Apollo) Stokstad plate 6-5Sculptor: maybe Vulca of Veii, Apulu (Apollo), from the roof of the Portonaccio Temple, Veii, Italy, ca BCE.Painted terracotta, approx. 5’ 11” highLife-size image of Apulu (Apollo)
18 One of the finest surviving rooftop statues brilliant example of the energy and excitement that characterizes Archaic Etruscan art in generalstatue came from a temple at Veiijust one of a group of at least four painted terracotta figures that adorned the roof of the templestory—the god confronts Hercle (Herakles or Hercules) for possession of a hind (female deer) who was a wondrous beast with golden horns that was sacred to Apulu’s sister Artumes (Artemis/Diana)
19 Gardner plate 9-3Sculptor: maybe Vulca of Veii, Apulu (Apollo), fromthe roof of the Portonaccio Temple, Veii, Italy,ca BCE.Painted terracotta, approx. 5’ 11” highThe bright paint and the rippling folds of Apulu’s garment call to mind the Greek korai[Gardner plate 5-12]Kore, from the Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca.510 BCE marble, approx. 1’ 9 ½ “ high
20 but this Apulu is distinctively Etruscan: a vital figure with extraordinary forcehuge swelling contoursplunging motiongesticulating armsfan-like calf musclesanimated facesculptor may have been Vulca of Veii, the most famous Etruscan sculptor of the timethe statue’s discovery in 1916 was instrumental in prompting a reevaluation of the originality of Etruscan art!
21 Etruscan Artists in Rome Tarquinius Superbus (the Arrogant”) was Rome’s last king, driven out in 509 BCEbut before his expulsion, TS started a most ambitious undertaking—erecting a magnificent temple on the Capitoline Hill for joint worship of the 3 main Etruscan godshe summoned architects, sculptors, and workers from all over Etruriaso Rome’s 1st great religious shrine was Etruscan in patronage, manufacture, and form
22 We know the following from several sources, including Pliny the Elder: Vulca of Veii sculpted the statue of Jupiter in a 4-horse chariotplaced at the highest point of the roof, directly over the façade’s centerHis red-faced (painted terracotta) Jupiter was so great that Roman generals would paint their faces red in emulation of his Jupiter when they paraded in triumph through Rome after a battlefield victory
23 A story about Vulca’s chariot group underscored both its tremendous size and the reverent awe later generations held for it:--Normally, terracotta statuary condenses and contracts in the furnace as the clay’s moisture evaporates in the heating process--But Vulca’s statue swelled instead and could only be removed form the furnace by dismantling the furnace!
24 Sculptor: Novios Plautios, “Ficoroni Cista” from Palestrina, Italy, late 4th c. BCE. Bronze, approx. 2’6” high
25 Vulca is the only Etruscan artist named by any ancient writer, but we have signatures of other Etruscan artists on surviving artworksE.g. Novios Plautios-worked in Rome, a few centuries later, like this cista (cylindrical container for a woman’s toilet articles)
26 Stokstad plate 6-8Sarcophagus with reclining couples, from Cerveteri, Italy, ca. 520 BCE.Painted terracotta, approx. 3’ 9 ½ “ high
27 life-size terracotta statuary was known in Greece but especially favored in Etruria This is a magnificent example of Archaic Etruscan terracotta sculptureSarcophagus in the form of a husband and wife reclining on a banqueting couch, from a tomb in the Cerveteri necropolisIt was cast in 4sections, then joined
28 No parallel in Greece—at this date, Greece had no monumental tombs to house such sarcophagi, because the Greeks buried their dead in simple graves marked by a stele or a statueThough banquets were commonly depicted on Greek vases, only men dined at Greek meals
29 The image of a husband and wife sharing the same banqueting couch is uniquely Etruscan These figures are animated like the Apulu of Veii, even though they are at rest
30 They are the antithesis of the stiff and formal figured encountered in Egyptian tomb sculpture Statue of Menkaure and KhamerernebtyStokstad plate 3-12
31 Peplos Kore, from the Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 530 BCE, Marble, approx.4’ high.Stokstad plate 5-20.Kroisos, from Anavysos, Greece, ca. 530 BCE.Marble, approx. 6’ 4” high.Stokstaad plate 5-18They are also in striking contrast to contemporary Greek statues with their emphasis on proportion and balance
32 notice how the Cerveteri sculptor rendered the upper and lower parts of each body: --the legs are only summarily modeled--the transition to the torso at the waist is unnatural--this artist’s interest is focused on the upper half of the figures, especially the vibrant faces and gesticulating armsThe Greek statues have closed contours and calm demeanor
33 Gestures are still an important ingredient of Italian conversation today
34 The “Audacity” of Etruscan Women at the end of the 1st c. BCE, Emperor Augustus had Livy write a history of Rome from its legendary founding in 753 BCE to his own dayin the first book, Livy recounted the tale of Tullia, daughter of Servius Tullius, an Etruscan king of Rome in the 6th c.:--the princess had married the less ambitious of 2 brothers of the royal Tarquinius family, while her sister had married the bolder one--together, Tullia and her brother-in-law, Tarquinius Superbus, arranged for the murder of their spouses--then they married each other and plotted the overthrow and death of Tullia’s father
35 that street is still called the “Street of Infamy’! Ostentatiously, Tullia drove her carriage over her father’s corpse, spraying herself with his bloodthat street is still called the “Street of Infamy’!
37 Livy placed Tullia’s actions in the context of the famous “audacity” of Etruscan women Independent spirit and relative freedom women enjoyed in Etruscan society also horrified and threatened other Greco-Roman male authors4th c. BCE Greek historian Theopompus heard about the debauchery of Etruscan women; but much of what he reported is untrue. They did not exercise naked alongside Etruscan menAristotle also remarked on Etruscan women attending banquets and reclining with their husbands
38 This custom (of Etruscan women attending banquets) shocked and frightened the Greeks, because only men, boys, slave girls, and prostitute attended Greek symposia (a convivial meeting, usually following a dinner, for drinking and intellectual conversation)In Greece, women remained at home, excluded from most of public life, but in Etruria, women also regularly attended sporting events with menEtruscan inscriptions also reflect the higherstatus of women in Etruria than in Greece: theyoften list both father and mother of the personcommemorated (unheard of in Greece—e.g.“Hegeso, daughter of Proxenos”)
39 Etruscan women retained their own names and could legally own property independent of their husbands The frequent inscriptions on Etruscan mirrors and such buried with women seem to attest to a high degree of female literacy as well.
40 Aerial view of Banditaccia necropolis, Cerveteri, Italy. 7th-2nd c.Stokstad plate 6-6Houses for the Dead: typical Etruscan tomb took the form of a mound (tumulus)
41 somewhat similar to Mycenaean Treasury of Atreus Etruscan
42 but instead of being constructed of masonry blocks and then covered by an earthen mound, each Etruscan tumulus covered one or more subterranean multi-chambered tombs cut of the dark local limestone called tufavery large tumuli--diameters sometimes reached over 130 feetarranged in cemeteries in an orderly manner along a network of streetsproduced the effect of cities of the deadalways located some distance from the cities of the living
43 these mirror the axial sequence of rooms in actual the underground tomb chambers cut into the rock resembled the houses of the livinge.g. the central entrance and smaller chambers open into a large central spacethese mirror the axial sequence of rooms in actualEtruscan houses of the time (similar to that of early Romanhouses)Plan of the Tomb of the Shields and Chairs, Cerveteri, Italy, 2nd half of 6th c. BCE.[Gardner plate 9-6]
44 Plan of a RomanHouse.Gardner p.255Plan of an Etruscan tomb
45 Tomb of Shields and Chairs, interior of the central room this “house look” was enhanced by cutting out of the rock a series of beds and grand armchairs with curved backs and footstools, ceiling beams, framed doorways, even windows
46 Interior of the Tomb of the Reliefs, Cerveteri, Italy, 3rd c. BCE. Stokstad plate 6-7this “house look” was enhanced by cutting out of the rock a series of beds and grand armchairs with curved backs and footstools, ceiling beams, framed doorways, even windows
47 Interior of the Tomb of the Reliefs, Cerveteri, Italy, 3rd c. BCE. Stokstad plate 3-19Interior hall of the rock-cut tomb of Amenemhet,Beni Hasan, Egypt, Dynasty XII, ca BCEThe Etruscan tomb houses are reminiscent of much earlier Egyptian rock-cut tombs
48 notice other different values of Etruscans— --Etruscans built houses to live in of wood and mud brick which didn’t last but Greeks built houses out of stone--Etruscans built stone huge monumental burial chambers, not Greeks
49 Tomb of the Reliefs is the most elaborately decorated tomb Tomb of Shields and chairs Tomb of the ReliefsTomb of the Reliefs is the most elaborately decorated tomblike previous Tomb of Shields and Chairs, it accommodated several generations of single familybrightly painted stucco reliefs covered the stonepictures of knives, mirrors, drinking cups, pitchers all suggest a domestic context
50 This comes from a tomb in Tarquinia Banqueters and Musicians, detail of mural paintings in the Tomb of the Leopards, Tarquinia, Italy, ca BCE.[Gardner plate 9-8]This comes from a tomb in Tarquinia
51 Tarquinian tombs different from Cerveteri: RomeCerverteriTarquinian tombs different from Cerveteri:--tumuli don't cover the Tarquinian tombs--the interiors do not have carvings imitating the appearance of Etruscan housesbut some paintings decorate the tomb chamber walls
52 TarquiniaRomeCerverteripainted tombs seem to have been only for the wealthiest Etruscan familiesWe know a lot about tombs here because archeologists began to use periscopes to explore tomb contents from the surface before excavation.
53 Tomb of the Leopards is characteristic tomb here Named for the beasts that guard the painted chamber’s interior form their perch within the real wall pedimentGuardian Leopards
54 West pediment from the Temple of Artemis, Corfu, Greece, ca West pediment from the Temple of Artemis, Corfu, Greece, ca BCE.Limestone, greatest height approx. 9’ 4” .Stokstad plate 5-12Reminiscent of the panthers on each side of Medusa in the pediment of the Archaic Greek temple of Artemis at Corfu
55 however, mythological figures are uncommon in Tarquinian murals Banquetersinstead, this tomb has banqueting couples (notice men with dark skin, women with light) adorn the walls.served by pitcher and cupbearers
56 musicians entertain them playing double pipes and the 7-stringed lyre banquet is in open air or perhaps in tentnotice the exaggerated gestures with unnaturally large hands—typically EtruscanThere is a man on a couch in the far right on the rear wall who holds up an egg—the symbol of regenerationTone is joyful, a celebration of life, food, wine, music, and dance, rather than a somber contemplation of death.
57 but more interested in rendering nature than Greeks Diving and fishing, detail of mural paintings in the Tomb of Hunting and Fishing, Tarquinia, Italy, ca BCE.Gardner plate 9-9Etruscan landscapesstylistically, Etruscan landscapes are comparable to 6th c. Greek vases before the Later Archaic painters got into foreshorteningbut more interested in rendering nature than Greekse.g. in Tomb of hunting and Fishing at Tarquinia
58 Here we sees scenes of Etruscan enjoying the pleasures of nature in this detail, a youth dives off a rocky promontory while others fish from a boat
59 Another wall has youthful hunters aiming slingshots at birds hunter withslingshot
60 These recall painted reliefs in the Old Kingdom Egyptian Tomb of Ti….Ti watching a hippopotamus hunt, relief in the mastaba of Ti, Saqqara, Egypt, Dynasty V [Old Kingdom], ca BCE. Painted limestone, hunting scene approx. 4’ high.Stokstad plate 3-15
61 ….and also mural paintings from the New Kingdom Tomb of Nebamun. The Etruscan painted reliefs may indicate knowledge of this Egyptian funerary tradition….Fowling scene from the tomb of Nebamun, Thebes, 18th Dynasty [New Kingdom], ca , fresco on dry plaster, about 2’8” high[Gardner plate 3-30]
62 Landscape with swallows (Spring Fresco), from Room Delta 2, Akrotiri, Thera (Cyclades), Greece,ca BCE, approx. 7’ 6” highStokstad plate 4-14…although the multicolored rocks look like the Aegean Spring Fresco, we don’t know of anything similar in contemporary Greek art.
63 Later Etruscan Artalthough 5th c. as golden age in Greece, it wasn’t in Etruria!In 509 BCE, Romans expelled the last of the Etruscan kings, Tarquinius Superbus, and became a republicin 474 BCE, the Etruscan fleet was defeated and ended Etruscan dominance of the sea and also ended its prosperity!these events had important art and architecture consequences:number of Etruscan tombs decreased sharply and so did the qualityno more golden jewelry and imported Greek vases in the tumulibut Etruscan art didn’t cease—they continued especially in casting of bronze and terracotta statures (though fewer in number)
64 Capitoline Wolf, from Rome, Italy, ca. 500-480 BCE, bronze. approx Capitoline Wolf, from Rome, Italy, ca BCE, bronze. approx. 2’ 7 ½ ” highStokstad plate 6-1
65 Capitoline Wolf:Best known of the later Etruscan statuesOne of the most memorable portrayals of an animal in the history of world artsomewhat larger than lifehollow-cast
66 Portrayal of she-wolf in the legend: she nursed Romulus and Remus after they were abandoned as infantsas adults, they quarreled and Romulus killed Remushe founded Rome on April 21, 753 BCE on the Palatine Hillbecame the city’s first king
67 but the statue seems to have been made for the new Roman Republic after they kicked out Tarquinius Superbusbecame the new state’s totem—appropriately defiant imageremains the emblem of Rome to this dayBut it’s an Etruscan work, not Roman!The kids were added in the Renaissance and probably the work of Antonio Pollaiuilo
68 Chimera of Arezzo, from Arezzo, Italy, 1st ½ of 500s BCE, bronze Chimera of Arezzo, from Arezzo, Italy, 1st ½ of 500s BCE, bronze. approx. 2’ 7 ½ ” high[Gardner plate 9-11]
69 another masterpiece of Etruscan animal sculpture found in 1553 and greatly admired during the RenaissanceCreated about 100 years after the Capitoline WolfChimera is a monster of Greek invention with* a lion’s head and body* a serpent’s tail* a goat head from out of the lion’s side
70 this one is from a myth—Greek hero Bellerophon hunted and slew the beast and here it is injured and bleeding but not defeated yetIt is tense:* muscles are stretched tightly over its rib cage* prepares to attackferocious cry emanates from its open jawsmenacing gaze upward toward an unseen adversary
71 some scholars think it might have been part of a group that originally included Bellerophon it seems in the tradition of the guardian nurse of Romulus and Remus
72 Etruscan artists produced cistae— Rome Overwhelms Etruriaover the 300s and 200s BCE, Rome conquered the various parts of EtruriaEtruscan artists produced cistae—* cylindrical containers for a woman’ toilet articles* made of sheet bronze with cast handles and feet and elaborately engraved bodiesin large numbers from the 4th c. BCE onwardthey were popular gifts for both the living anddead (along with engraved bronze mirrors)the Etruscan bronze cista industry centered inPalestrina
73 Novios Plautios, Ficoroni Cista, from Palestrina, Italy, late 4th c Novios Plautios, Ficoroni Cista, from Palestrina, Italy, late 4th c. BCE, bronze. approx. 2’ 6” high[Gardner plate 9-12]
74 the composition is an adaptation of a lost Greek panel painting The Ficoroni Cista:inscription on the handle states that India Laconia, a local noblewoman, deposited the bronze container in her daughter’s tomb and that the artist was Novios Plautiosaccording to the inscription, his workshop was in Rome-by this date becoming an important Italian cultural and political center\the engraved frieze shows an episode from the Argonauts in search of he Golden Fleecethe composition is an adaptation of a lost Greekpanel paintingthis is another testimony to the burgeoningwealth and prestige of the formerly-Etruscan cityGreek source for the engraving is evident in:* the figures seen entirely from behind or in¾ view* the placement of the protagonists onseveral levels* in the Polygnotan manner
75 What is the “Polygnotan manner”? Classical Greek Painter, Polygnotos of ThasosLeading painter of the 1st half of the 5th c. BCE (“late Classical period”)His work adorned important buildings both in Athens and DelphiE.g. the pinakotheke of Mnesikles’ PropylaiaHe was a red-figured vase painter
76 Classical Greek Painter, Polygnotos of Thasos He introduced a revolutionary compositional style, rejecting the scheme used on all Greek vases examined thus farHis style:* Before him, figures were situated on a common ground line at the bottom of the picture plane, either in horizontal bands or single panels* But Polygnotos placed his figures on different levels, staggered in tiers in the manner of Ashurbanipal’s lion hunt relief of 2 centuries before
77 Ashurbanipal hunting lions, relief from the North Palace of Ashurbanipal, Nineveh, Iraq, ca BCE. Gypsum, approx. 5’ high[Gardner plate 2-24]The abandonment of a single ground line by Polygnotos and his followers was as momentous a break form the past as was the rejection of frontality in statuary by Early Classical Greek sculptors
78 City of Perugia formed an alliance with Rome and so wasn’t destroyed:
79 in fact, portions of Perugia’s ancient walls and gates are still Porta Marzia, Perugia, Italy, 2nd c. BCE[Gardner plate 9-13]in fact, portions of Perugia’s ancient walls and gates are stillstandingthis includes the Porta Marzia (Gate of Mars)
80 this was the upper part of the gate, imbedded in a later war the arcuated (curved) opening is formed by a series of trapezoidal stones voussoirs held in place by pressing against each other
81 Ishtar Gate (restored), Babylon, Iraq, ca. 575 BCE. Glazed brick. such arches were built earlier in Greece as well as Mesopotamia(see gate of Ishtar)Ishtar Gate (restored), Babylon, Iraq, ca. 575 BCE. Glazed brick.Stokstad plate 2-27
82 but Italy, first under the Etruscans and later under the Romans, is where arcuated gateways and freestanding (triumphal) arches became a major architectural typethe Porta Marzia typified Etruscan adaptation of Greek motifs by using Hellenic-inspired pilasters (columns projecting from walls) to frame the archesThis use of pilasters has a long and distinguished history in Roman and later timesin the Porta Marzia sculptured half-figures of Jupiter and his sons Castor and Pollux and their horses look out from between the fluted pilastersWhy Castor and Pollux? The divine twins had appeared miraculously on a battlefield in 484 BCE to run the tide in favor of the Romansthe presence of these 3 deities here may reflect the new Roman practice of erecting triumphal arches crowned by gilded bronze statues
83 Aule Metele (Arringatore, Orator) from Sanguineto, Italy, early 1st c Aule Metele (Arringatore, Orator) from Sanguineto, Italy, early 1st c. BCE. Bronze,approx. 5/7” highStokstad plate 6-12in contrast to Lars, the portrait of Aule Metele is a supremely self-confident imageportrayed as a magistrate raising his arm to address an assembly (that’s why the modern nickname)life-size bronze statue was discovered in 1566 so it’s another Etruscan masterpiece known to Italian Renaissance sculptorsthis shows that the Etruscan artists continued to be experts at bronze-casting long after the heyday of Etruria
84 probably produced at about the time that Roman predominance (hegemony) over Etruscans became total so-called Social War of the early 1st c. BCE ended in 89 BCE with the conferring of Roman citizenship on all Italy’s inhabitantsin fact, Aule wears the short toga and high laced boots of a Roman magistratehead with close-cropped hair and signs of age in fact, resembles portraits produced in Rome at the timethis orator is Etruscan in name onlyEtruscan art became Roman Art
86 arcuated: of arch-column construction chimera: A monster of Greek invention with the head and body of a lion and the tail of a serpent. A second head, that of a goat, grows out of one side of the body.cista (plural: cistae: an Etruscan cylindrical container made of sheet bronze with case handles and feet, often with elaborately engraved bodies, used for women’s toilet articles.Etruscan: a native or inhabitant of ancient Etruria; the Etruscans influenced the Romans (who had suppressed them by about 200 BCE) fibula: A decorative pin, usually used to fasten garments.granulation: a decorative technique in which tiny metal balls, granules, are fused to a metal surfacenecropolis: a large burial area or cemetery; literally, a city of the deadpectoral: an ornament worn on the chestpodium: the masonry supporting a classical temple or other buildingstucco: fine plaster or cement used as a coating for walls or for decorationtufa: a porous rock formed from deposits of springstumulus (plural: tumuli): Burial mound; in Etruscan architecture, tumuli cover one or more subterranean multichambered tombs cut out of the local tufa.Tuscan (Etruscan) column: also known as Etruscan column. Resembles ancient Greek Doric column, but made of wood, unfluted, and with a base. Tuscan columns were spaced more widely than were Greek columns.
87 voussoirs: wedge-shaped blocks used in the construction of a true arch voussoirs: wedge-shaped blocks used in the construction of a true arch. The central voussoir, which set the arch, is the keystoneVulca: Vulca was an Etruscan artist from the town of Veii. The only Etruscan artist mentioned by ancient writers, he worked for the last of the Roman kings, Tarquinius Superbus. He is responsible for creating a terracotta statue of Jupiter that was inside the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on the Capitoline Hill, and possibly the Apollo of Veii. His statue of Jupiter, which being made of terracotta had a red face, was so famous that victorious Roman generals would paint their faces red during their triumphal marches through Rome. Pliny the Elder wrote that his works ere "the finest images of deities of that era...more admired than gold.
100 Key terms:arcuated opening: To create architectural forms that could cover larger spaces without too many supports the arcuated system of building could be used. The basic unit of the arcuated system was the arch, which was semi-circular in shape. In this case, the supports did not carry monolithic lintels, but smaller units, wedge-shaped voussoirs, which were constructed over arch-shaped wooden shuttering. Once they were all in place, with the final key stone at the top of the arch, their shape meant that their own weight wedged them more and more tightly together in a dynamic structure, and the shuttering could safely be removed and used to build the next one.chimera: A monster of Greek invention with the head and body of a lion and the tail of a serpent. A second head, that of a goat, grows out of one side of the body.cistae: plural of cista. An Etruscan cylindrical container made of sheet bronze with case handles and feet, often with elaborately engraved bodies, used for women’s grooming items.Etruscan: pertaining to Etruria, its inhabitants, civilization, art, or language.fibula: a decorative pin, usually used to fasten garments.granulation: A decorative technique in which tiny metal balls, granules, are fused to a metal surface.necropolis: A large burial area or cemetery, literally, A city of the deadpectoral: An ornament worn on the chestpodium: a continuous projecting base or pedestal under a building.stucco:fine plaster used for coating wall surfaces or molding into architectural decorations.tufa: A porous rock formed from deposits of springstumulus: Burial mound; in Etruscan architecture, tumuli cover one or ore subterranean multi-chambered tombs cut out of the local tufa. Also characteristic of the Japanese Kofun period of the third and fourth centuries where they signal the rise of grand political leaders.Tuscan: relating to or denoting a classical order of architecture resembling the Doric but lacking all ornamentation.voussoirs: A wedge-shaped block used in the construction of a true arch. The central voissoir, which sets the arch, is the keystone.Vulca: the only Etruscan artist mentioned by ancient writers