2Table of Contents 1. Introductory Prepositional Phrases - list 2. Introductory Subordinating Conjunctions - list3. Transition Words4. Comma-Conjunction5. Appositives6. Parallelism7. Sentence Variety Score Formula
3Introductory Prepositional Phrases Introductory prepositional phrases come at the beginning of the sentence and start with a preposition or prepositional phrase.If the phrase is three words long or more, it gets a comma.The comma comes after the object of the preposition (the noun).You can remove the phrase and the sentence still makes sense.When you write, use introductory prepositional phrases to add variety to your sentences.
4The rabbit ran __________ the stump. Preposition?This is the trick for checking to see if you have a preposition at the beginning of the sentence. If the word fits in the blank, chances are it is a preposition.The rabbit ran __________ the stump.
5Examples On the trampoline, Emily hurt her foot. At the time of the operation, the doctor was stuck in traffic.Of course you can play with Jack and Ryan on Tuesday.Without the proper papers, you will not be able to visit your family in Canada.(to + a verb is called an infinitive)
6Prepositionsabout above according to across after against along along with among apart from around as as for at because of before behind below beneath beside between beyond but* by by means ofconcerning despite down during except except for excepting for from in in addition to in back of in case of in front of in place of inside in spite of instead of into like near next of off ononto on top of out out of outside over past regarding round since through throughout till to toward under underneath unlike until up upon up to with within withoutThe words in purple show that those words are also subordinating conjunctions.
7Introductory Subordinating Clauses - These clauses earn a comma when they come at the beginning of the sentence. - TRICK - If you can move the clause to the end of the sentence, then it requires a comma.
8When he was a young boy, Peter liked to play with trucks. after although as as soon as because before by the time even if even though every time if in case in the event that just in case now thatExamples:When he was a young boy, Peter liked to play with trucks.After we play tonight's game, we will only have one game left this season.once only if since since the first time though unless until when whenever whereas whether or not while while
9Transition Words- A transition word is used in writing to move from one idea to the next. - There are two kinds of T-Words - external - These transition words come at the beginning of paragraphs. - internal - These transition words are used within paragraphs.
10Sentence Variety Score SVSUse this formula to figure out if your sentences have variety or not. Remember, you are looking at the first word of every sentence.+ 1 - New Word - the first time you use any word+2 - Transition Words Intro. Prep. Phrase Subordinating Clause+0 - The-1 - Repeated Word - Whenever you repeat a wordFormula - # of Points = % # of SentencesRemember, you want your score to be around 100%.
11Uses For SVS1. If your score is over 100%, you may have too many intro. prep. phrases, t-words, or subordinating clauses. If it is below 100%, you may have repeated yourself too many times or left out your t - words in front of detail sentences.2. By looking at the list, you can easily see where to make improvements. Start by rewording your -1.3. Most things that you give a +2 should have a comma in the sentence. Go back and check!
12Comma ConjunctionOne way to remedy (fix) run-on sentences is by adding a comma and a conjunction word.Conjunctions – and, or, nor, for, so, yet, butMrs. Ann ButornorforThe Rule: When combining two complete sentences, you must have BOTH a comma and a conjunction.
13The Test: As you proofread your paper, cover a comma or conjunction word when you find it alone with your index finger. Read to the left – is it a complete sentence? – read to the right – is it a complete sentence? If you have two complete sentences, you MUST have a comma and a conjunction word.
14I love to go to the movies, and I love to go to the mall. Examples:* The rain is coming down in sheets, but I don’t mind because I have a fire in the fireplace and no place to go.I love to go to the movies, and I love to go to the mall.* Amy is going shopping with Rachel and Jill.Compound noun – no comma
15CopacabanaAt the comma, comma conjunction, the hottest comma rule at this function.Here at the comma, comma conjunction, two complete sentences fall into one with a comma and a conjunction.
16Bell Ringer AnswersOnce in a while, Sheila went to the movies alone. She didn’t have to share her popcorn, she didn’t have to shush her companion, and she didn’t have to debate which movie to see. On the other hand, there was also no one to poke in the ribs when a character said something funny, and there was no one to explain when something unexpected happened. She wasn’t sure which way was better, but she loved going to the movies.
17Appositives An appositive is a group of words used to describe a noun. The appositive must always follow the noun that it is describing, and it must always be set off by commas.
18The list of 4 ways to create an appositive: 1. determiners (a, an, the)Ex.:Jimmer Fredette, the star BYU basketball player, is from Glens Falls, New York.Rover, a Golden Retriever, is so sweet.Physics, an interesting science, is offered during your senior year.
192. the one _______Ex.:The cute puppy, the one with shaggy fur, is very playful.Samantha, the one who has a solo in tonight’s concert, is nervous.My house, the one on the corner of Elm and Thompson, is for sale.
203. two adjectives joined with “and” Ex.:The sky, dark and ominous, is hinting at the storm to come.The sun, bright and hot, is a welcome change after a long, cold winter.
214. Possessives and possessive adjectives his, her, their, my, our, your, its(adjectives that show ownership/relationships)Ex.:Dimitri, Maria’s brother, is in the military.Mary, my sister, is a dental hygienist.My sister, Mary, is a dental hygienist.(opposite of the rule, but still counts)
22Making Appositives Work for You! The formula for writing sentences with appositives:1. Write a sentence.2. Locate the noun that you want to describe.3. Use one of the 4 ways to create an appositive.4. Insert the appositive directly after the noun that you want to modify.5. Add your commas.
23Appositives are also used to combine sentences. Ex.:My friend wears a red shirt everyday.My friend is in my science class.My friend, the one who wears a red shirt everyday, is in my science class.
24Parallel StructureParallel structure means using the same pattern of words to show that two or more ideas have the same level of importance. This can happen at the word, phrase, or clause level. The usual way to join parallel structures is with the use of coordinating conjunctions such as "and" or "or."Examples:Parallel: Mary likes hiking, swimming, and bicycling.Parallel: Mary likes to hike, to swim, and to ride a bicycle.ORMary likes to hike, swim, and ride a bicycle.(Note: You can use "to" before all the verbs in a sentence or only before the first one.)Do not mix forms.Not Parallel: Mary likes hiking, swimming, and to ride a bicycle.
25* ClausesA parallel structure that begins with clauses must keep on with clauses. Changing to another pattern or changing the voice of the verb (from active to passive or vice versa) will break the parallelism.ExampleNot Parallel: The coach told the players that they should get a lot of sleep, that they should not eat too much, and to do some warm-up exercises before the game.Parallel: The coach told the players that they should get a lot of sleep, that they should not eat too much, and that they should do some warm-up exercises before the game.— or —Parallel: The coach told the players that they should get a lot of sleep, not eat too much, and do some warm-up exercises before the game.*Lists After a ColonBe sure to keep all the elements in a list in the same form.Not Parallel: The dictionary can be used for these purposes: to find word meanings, pronunciations, correct spellings, and looking up irregular verbs.Parallel: The dictionary can be used for these purposes: to find word meanings, pronunciations, correct spellings, and irregular verbs.