Presentation on theme: "Text Chapter 32.3-4. 1941—Germany controls the majority of Europe and North Africa, but is unable to defeat Great Britain Invade the Soviet Union."— Presentation transcript:
1941—Germany controls the majority of Europe and North Africa, but is unable to defeat Great Britain Invade the Soviet Union in summer 1941, but their advance stalls at the Battle of Moscow in winter 1942
12/7/41—Japan, having already invaded China, French Indochina, and the Dutch East Indies, bombs Pearl Harbor, then attacks and conquers the Philippines. 1942—Japan controls much of SE Asia, but has been halted at the Coral Sea and suffers huge losses at Midway (June 7) MacArthur begins strategy of island hopping in the Solomon Islands at Guadalcanal
Nazi persecution of Jews was a government policy Kristallnacht Jews flee Germany, but have trouble finding countries who will take them in such huge numbers Ghettos 1942--Final Solution: Death Camps Jews, Gypsies, Poles, Russians, homosexuals, disabled, incurably ill
12/22/41: Churchill and Roosevelt meet, and agree to Stalin’s proposal to create a Western front Despite Stalin’s request to attack France, U.S. & G.B. open their war effort against Germany in North Africa 1942—General Montgomery defeats Rommel, and takes back Libyan port of Tobruk. “Operation Torch”— Eisenhower leads 100k troops into Morocco and Algeria
Battle of Stalingrad— August 1942 After relentless bombing by the Luftwaffe, Nazis were able to control 90% of the city by November. Then...winter!
Roosevelt & Churchill still won’t invade France. From N. Africa they turn their attention to Italy Allies capture Sicily in August, 1943, and take Rome in June 1944 after a year of gradually pushing the Germans north. Fighting between Axis forces and Italian resistance continues until 1945 Mussolini captured, shot, and hanged in Milan in April, 1945
Civilian factories converted to make wartime goods. Food and supplies are rationed so more can be sent overseas Speed limit in the U.S. reduced to 35 mph Students recycle scrap metal and rubber Civil Rights Violated (Japanese Internment) Record high taxes
After gaining control of N. Africa, & Southern Italy, G.B. and U.S. finally decide to launch an offensive in Western Europe Massive invasion force is assembled in England to attack the Germans in France across the English Channel D-Day: June 6, 1944. Allied launch the offensive along 60 miles of French coast. The Germans are heavily entrenched and 2700 Americans die the first day. Despite heavy losses, Allies secure the beaches within days, and now have a point in France to launch offensives into the country.
After securing Normandy, the U.S. 3 rd Army (Patton) gradually make their way toward Paris August 19, 1944—French resistance fighters stage a massive uprising against the German garrison in Paris Patton’s army reinforces the resistance. Germans surrender on the 25 th —Paris is free.
Allied success in France=2 front war for Germany Hitler launches massive counter-attack in the West: Ardennes Offensive Battle of the Bulge: December, 1944 Ardennes offensive was the last gasp of the German army As U.S. and British approached Berlin from the West, and the Soviets approached from the East Hitler commits suicide. May 7, 1945: 3 rd Reich Surrenders. May 9, 1945: V-E Day
After taking Guadalcanal, MacArthur’s army returns to the Philippines—Island of Leyte (10/44) Japanese committed almost their entire fleet to stopping the American advance north. October 1944--Battle of Leyte Gulf leaves the Japanese fleet in ruins, and eliminates it as a force in the war. March 1945: Marines take Iwo Jima (760 miles from Tokyo) June 1945: U.S. takes Okinawa (350 miles from southern Japan
After Okinawa, the Allies were within striking distance of Japan Manhattan Project After a successful detonation in New Mexico, Truman warns Japan that they must surrender 8/6/45—”Little Boy” dropped on Hiroshima. 80K die 8/9/45—”Fat Man” dropped on Nagasaki. 70K die Japan finally surrenders to MacArthur on the deck of the Missouri 9/2/45