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THE BERLIN WALL By Mr Crowe www.SchoolHistory.co.uk.

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2 THE BERLIN WALL By Mr Crowe www.SchoolHistory.co.uk

3 Another Cold War crisis Background East – West rivalry Berlin divided – contrast the two halves. WEST: Prosperous, helped by US, attracted people from the East. Seen by USSR as infection in the heart of Communist East Germany. EAST: Much less prosperous and under Communist control

4 Crossing Points There were twelve crossing points from East to West but only two were available to non- Germans Tourists from abroad, diplomats and military personnel were only allowed into East Berlin at one crossing point Berlin Friedrichstarsse This became known as Checkpoint Charlie The two other main crossing points were Helmstedt - Checkpoint Alpha Dreilinden - Checkpoint Bravo

5 Numbers Total length around West Berlin 155km 91 miles Border between East and West Berlin 43.1 km27 miles Number of watch towers302 Number of bunkers 20 Concrete wall height 3.6m 11.81ft Anti –tank trenches 105.5km 65 miles

6 Focus on refugees from East Germany or East Berlin to West 1949-129,245 1951- 165,648 1953- 331,390 1955- 252,870 1957- 261,622 1959- 143,917 1961- 207,026 1962- 21,356 1963- 42,632 1964- 41,876

7 What they wanted The West Prevent USSR from gaining control of East Germany To see a united, democratic Germany The East Maintain control over E Germany Make the West recognise it as an independent state Stop the flood of refugees especially the skilled and professional ones – much needed in E Germany

8 1958-Soviet demands West should: Recognise GDR Withdraw troops from West Berlin Hand their access routes over to the East German government Khrushchev bluffed that he would hand East Berlin over to the GDR. West refused and Khrushchev backed down.

9 Events of 1961 June-Vienna Summit Khrushchev pressured new American President John F Kennedy Demanded withdrawal of Western forces from West Berlin – Kennedy refused July – Western powers reject Khrushchev’s Vienna demands July 23 – Flow of refugees from East to West = 1000 a day July 25 – Kennedy repeats support for West Berlin and announced increase in arms spending

10 Events cont’d 13-22 August – Khrushchev and East German govt. orders barbed wire barrier across Berlin, followed by a wall of concrete blocks All of West Berlin encircled apart from access points This was against the Four Power agreement reached in Paris on 20 June 1949.

11 Did Kennedy really mind the wall? He had protected West Berlin and he never promised to protect East Berlin?

12 Results Important results for Berlin, Germany and the Cold War Berlin Berlin was divided, free access ended between East and West, many families split, many attempted to escape to the West- between 1961 and 1989, 86 people died trying to cross the Berlin Wall

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14 Results cont’d Kennedy accepted the Soviet action. He refused to use US troops to pull down the wall to avoid war. Kennedy looked weak but West turned it into propaganda – why if Communism was so attractive was a wall needed? 1963 – Kennedy visited West Berlin – pledged continued support – ‘Ich bin ein Berliner’ (I am a Berliner) – famous speech Khrushchev lost face by failing to remove the West from Berlin LINK:CNN - Cold War-The WallCNN - Cold War-The Wall


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