Presentation on theme: "By Mr Crowe www.SchoolHistory.co.uk THE BERLIN WALL."— Presentation transcript:
1By Mr Crowe www.SchoolHistory.co.uk THE BERLIN WALL
2Another Cold War crisis BackgroundEast – West rivalryBerlin divided – contrast the two halves.WEST: Prosperous, helped by US, attracted people from the East. Seen by USSR as infection in the heart of Communist East Germany.EAST: Much less prosperous and under Communist control
3Crossing Points There were twelve crossing points from East to West but only two were available to non-GermansTourists from abroad, diplomats and militarypersonnel were only allowed into East Berlin atone crossing point Berlin FriedrichstarsseThis became known as Checkpoint CharlieThe two other main crossing points wereHelmstedt - Checkpoint AlphaDreilinden - Checkpoint Bravo
4Numbers Total length around West Berlin 155km 91 miles Border between East and West Berlin km 27 milesNumber of watch towers 302Number of bunkersConcrete wall height m ftAnti –tank trenches km miles
5Focus on refugees from East Germany or East Berlin to West ,245,648,390,870,622,917,026,356,632,876
6What they wanted The West Prevent USSR from gaining control of East GermanyTo see a united, democratic GermanyThe EastMaintain control over E GermanyMake the West recognise it as an independent stateStop the flood of refugees especially the skilled and professional ones – much needed in E Germany
71958-Soviet demands West should: Recognise GDR Withdraw troops from West BerlinHand their access routes over to the East German governmentKhrushchev bluffed that he would hand East Berlin over to the GDR. West refused and Khrushchev backed down.
8Events of 1961 June-Vienna Summit Khrushchev pressured new American President John F KennedyDemanded withdrawal of Western forces from West Berlin – Kennedy refusedJuly – Western powers reject Khrushchev’s Vienna demandsJuly 23 – Flow of refugees from East to West = 1000 a dayJuly 25 – Kennedy repeats support for West Berlin and announced increase in arms spending
9Events cont’d13-22 August – Khrushchev and East German govt. orders barbed wire barrier across Berlin, followed by a wall of concrete blocksAll of West Berlin encircled apart from access pointsThis was against the Four Power agreement reached in Paris on 20 June 1949.
10Did Kennedy really mind the wall? He had protected West Berlin and he never promised to protect East Berlin?
11Results Important results for Berlin, Germany and the Cold War Berlin was divided, free access ended between East and West, many families split, many attempted to escape to the West-between 1961 and 1989, 86 people died trying to cross the Berlin Wall
13Results cont’dKennedy accepted the Soviet action. He refused to use US troops to pull down the wall to avoid war.Kennedy looked weak but West turned it into propaganda – why if Communism was so attractive was a wall needed?1963 – Kennedy visited West Berlin – pledged continued support – ‘Ich bin ein Berliner’ (I am a Berliner) – famous speechKhrushchev lost face by failing to remove the West from BerlinLINK:CNN - Cold War-The Wall