2GROUPSSHAWThree or more persons who are interacting with one another in such a manner that each person influences and is influenced by each other person.Reciprocal influence leader & followersGroup members interact and influence one anotherNot constrained to one groupDYAD = Two persons interacting together.
3GROUP PERFORMANCEAdditive Task – group’s output simply involves the combination of individual outputs.Interactive Effects – to what extent should group members be similar / dissimillar or compatible / incompatible?
4GROUP PERFORMANCEProcess Loss – inefficiencies created by more and more people working together.Social Loafing – reduced work effort by people when not individually accountable.Social Facilitation – increased work effort due to the presence of others.Hawthorne Effect – artificial change in behavior because group is being studied
5GROUP PERFORMANCE TUCKMAN’s 4 STAGES Forming – superficial information, low trustStorming – conflict, status differentiationNorming – emergence of leader, development of norms, cohesivenessPerforming – interdependent roles to perform group’s tasks
6GROUP ROLES BENNE & SHEATS Sets of expected behaviors associated with particular jobs or positions.Task roles – getting task doneRelationship (Maintenance) roles – supporting relationships within the groupDysfunctional roles – self-serving behavior
7GROUP NORMSInformal rules groups adopt to regulate and regularize group members’ behavior.Facilitate group survivalMake predictable expected behaviorAvoid embarrassing interpersonal problemsExpress central values of the groupClarify group’s identityEasier for outsider to identify
8GROUP COHESIONSum of forces that attract members to a group, provide resistance to leaving, motivate active membership. Group glue.Overbounding – overly cohesive group erects barriers to outside resourcesGroupthink – suppression of dissent, critical thinking in highly cohesive groupsOllieism – illegal action by overzealous membersAbilene Paradox – go along with the group when no one wants to
9GROUPS V TEAMS Mutual interaction, Reciprocal influence + Stronger sense of identificationCommon goals or tasksGreater task interdependenceDifferentiated and specialized roles
10EFFECTIVE TEAMS Task Clear mission, high standards Take stock of resourcesAssess technical skills of team membersSecure resourcesPlan and organizeMaintenanceHigh levels of communicationMinimal interpersonal conflict
114 Required Initial Components EFFECTIVE TEAMSHACKMAN/GINNETT4 Required Initial ComponentsTask Structure – unambiguous, autonomyGroup Boundaries – enough skills, interpersonal skills, diversityNorms – support objectivesAuthority – match demands of situation
12GROUPS & PERSONALITY Issues Mann (1959) and Shaw (1981) noted that small group researchers had used over 500 different measures of personalityLess than a quarter used the same measure.Numerous tasks used as measure of group performance.Personality is additive as well as interactive
13GROUPS & PERSONALITYPersonality is additive input. Treat as resource which combines additively to directly affect group performance.Personality is interactive. Affects group processes.
14PERSONALITY INTERACTIONS TWO DISTINCT APPROACHESProcess gain or loss that results when teammembers’ personalities interact characterized by two distinct approaches.COMPATIBILITY APPROACH vs.PROFILE HETEROGENEITY APPROACHAgreeableness vs. Dominance
15COMPATIBILITY APPROACH Social Compatibility Approach emphasizes Extraversion and Agreeableness.Process gain results when groups are homogeneously high in terms of Agreeable-nessSkewed in terms of the assertiveness facet of Extraversion with one dominant rest lowEnhanced group process by reduced conflict.Conscientiousness and Openness additive
16HETEROGENEITY APPROACH Heterogeneity per se not any additive personality combination is required for success.Heterogeneous groups have a greater variety of perspectives.Standard Deviation most important.Conflict causes issues to be challenged and assumptions examined.
17TEAM ROLE THEORY R. Meredith Belbin Cambridge Professor “Management Teams: Why They Succeed of Fail”Management College HenlyTotal Enterprise SimulationsRole PlayingExamined personality characteristics of successful and unsuccessful teams with regard to Cattell’s 16PF
18TEAM ROLE THEORYSuccessful teams have a complete and balanced distribution of nine team roles.Unsuccessful teams have voids or overlaps.Voids – teams that lack a team role.Overlaps – Unconstructive Friction
19TEAM ROLE THEORYTeam Role describes a pattern of behavior characteristic of the way in which one team member interacts with another where his performance serves to facilitate the progress of the team as a whole.
20TEAM ROLE THEORYPLANTRESOURCE INVESTIGATORCO-ORDINATORSHAPERMONITOR-EVALUATORTEAM WORKERIMPLEMENTERCOMPLETER-FINISHERSPECIALIST
21PLANT Idea person, Introverted Source of creativity, Unorthodox Individualistic, Serious mindedLooks outside of the boxPros:Genius, imaginative, intellect, knowledgeCons:Up-in-the-clouds, disregard practical details
22RESOURCE INVESTIGATOR Extraverted, Curious, Enthusiastic, CommunicativeInquisitive, Social, Extraverts, Low AnxietyExplores and reports on ideas, resources outside the group.Pros:Capacity for networking, ability to respond to challenge.Cons:Lose interest once the initial fascination has passed.
23CO-ORDINATOR Stable, Extravert, Natural Leader Calm, self-confident, controlledControls team by making best use of team resources. Unifier pulls group together to pursue common objectivePros:Treats and welcomes all participantsClear sense of objectives, 9.9. leaderCons:Ordinary in intellect and creativity
24SHAPER Extraverted, Unstable (dynamic) Goads group into action. Mover and shaker.Imposes shape on group discussion and on the outcome of the group.Pros:Drive, readiness to challenge inertiaCons:Proneness to provocation, irritation, and impatience 9.1.
25MONITOR-EVALUATOR Sober, Discerning, Prudent, Unemotional Capacity to make shrewd judgments that takes all factors into account.Analyzes problems, evaluates ideas and suggestions.Pros:Judgment, discretion, hard-headednessCons:Lacks inspiration or the ability to motivate others.
26TEAM WORKER Extraverted, Agreeable, low Assertiveness Strong interest in people and communication, sensitiveSupports members in their strengths, improves communication, fosters team spirit.Pros:Ability to respond to people and situationsCons:Indecisiveness at moments of crisis
27IMPLEMENTERDisciplined, Reliable, Practical, Conscien tious, Dutiful, PracticalTurns concepts and plans into practical working procedures. Carries out plans systematically and efficiently.Conservative, dutiful, predictable.Pros:Organizing ability, practical common sense, hard-working, self-disciplined.Cons:Lack of flexibility, unresponsive to unproven ideas
28COMPLETER-FINISHER Conscientious, Anxious, Disciplined, Self- controlled, Orderly, IntrovertedEnsures that the team is protected from mistakes of both omission and commission.Pros:PerfectionistCons:Tendency to worry about small things. Difficulty in letting go.
29SPECIALIST Introverted, has narrow special knowledge Technical expert Dedicated, single minded
30BENNE & SHEETS 1948 TASK ROLES Initiator-contributor – suggests new ideasInformation seeker – seeks relevant factsElaborator – spells out solutions/rationalesCoordinator – pulls ideas/actions togetherOrienter – defines group’s positionEvaluator-critic – imposes a standardEnergizer – prods group to actionProcedural technician – does things for group
31BENNE & SHEETS 1948 MAINTENANCE ROLES Encourager – provides warmth, acceptanceHarmonizer – mediates differencesCompromiser – suggests solutions to problemsGate-Keeper – keeps communication openEgo Ideal – applies standards in evaluating group processesFollower – goes with the flow of the group