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Unit 11: Texas in the Great Depression and World War II

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1 Unit 11: Texas in the Great Depression and World War II
Section Three Notes: World War II

2 World War I Leads to World War II
After World War I, Germany and Italy were left crippled. The people of these countries felt desperate for leadership and soon turned to a new form of government known as fascism, which allows for a very strong central government led by one individual. Under fascism, the needs of the nation are more important than that of individual people. Adolf Hitler of Germany and Benito Mussolini of Italy began to expand their military forces.

3 World War II Begins in Europe
When Germany invaded Poland on September 1, 1939, Great Britain and France declared war on Germany. This was the start of World War II. At the same time, Japan was building up their military. The U.S. was not ready to get involved.

4 Japan’s Empire As Germany and Italy began expanding their countries in Europe, Japan was also attempting to grow. Japan invaded China in 1939, and as they attempted to take over all of Asia, Japan’s leadership saw the United States as a threat. They planned an attack on U.S. soil, now known as Pearl Harbor.

5 Pearl Harbor Date: Dec. 7, 1941 The Battle of Pearl Harbor was a surprise attack on a Hawaiian naval base. The Pearl Harbor base held the United States’ Pacific naval fleet, and the Japanese attack to Pearl Harbor would greatly harm our military. Over 2400 Americans were killed and over 1200 were wounded. The next day, the United States declared war on Japan.







12 Axis Powers The Axis Powers were united in their thoughts on rejecting democracy and U.S. power in the world. The main countries that made up the Axis Powers, though there were others, were: Germany Japan Italy

13 Allied Powers The Allied Powers were made up of many countries, but the main powers were: The United States The United Kingdom (Great Britain) The Soviet Union (Russia)

14 Beginning of U.S. in World War II
Date: Dec. 8, 1941 – U.S. declared war on Japan Date: Dec. 11, 1941 – Germany and Italy declare war on the U.S. World War II actually started several years before the United States joined the fight. U.S. citizens were afraid to join another world war, but after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, we were no longer given the choice. Americans were ready to fight for victory.

15 Call for War Real Speech: Movie Speech:

16 Texan Involvement in World War II
Thousands of Texans rushed to enlist as soon as war was declared. Of the 750,000 Texans who fought, 75% of them fought with the army. 33 Texans received the Congressional Medal of Honor, five of which were Mexican Americans. Audie Murphy, a Texan, was the war’s most decorated soldier with 33 awards and medals. Dwight D. Eisenhower, a Texan from Denison, was the commander of all Allied forces in Europe. Admiral Chester W. Nimitz of Fredricksburg commanded the U.S. fleet in the Pacific.


18 Texas Women in World War II
Thousands of Texas women also served in noncombatant positions during the war. Oveta Culp Hobby of Houston commanded the Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC). About 8,000 female Texans joined the WAAC and helped manage U.S. posts around the globe. Texas women also joined the workforce, taking factory jobs at home, while the men were away fighting.


20 Political, Social, and Economic Effects of World War II
Just like during World War I, many soldiers trained in Texas. About 1.2 million U.S. soldiers trained at military bases in Texas. The chemical, oil, and steel industries in Texas also expanded production to meet wartime needs, creating thousands of new jobs in the state. The economy boomed and the Great Depression came to an end. Texans purchased more war bonds and rationed food to raise and save money for the soldiers. The war led to further urbanization in Texas as well.

21 Other Important Texans during this Era
John Nance Garner – From Uvalde, Garner was the Vice President of the United States during President Roosevelt’s first term in office. Sam Rayburn – He was the Speaker of the House (U.S. House of Representatives). He supported financial support for the war effort.

22 The End of World War II Germany finally surrendered on May 8, As Allied forces entered Germany, the discovered death camps in which millions of people had been killed. Some 6 million Jews had been killed during the Holocaust. The war with Japan continued until the U.S. dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan on Aug. 6, Three days later, another bomb was dropped on Nagasaki. Japan surrendered on Sept. 2, As a result of this war, 400,000 Americans died, including 23,000 Texans. In all, it is estimated that 50 million people died during World War II.


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