Presentation on theme: "World War II. America at War Pearl Harbor ► December 7th, 1941: Japanese Naval forces led a surprise attack on the US naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii."— Presentation transcript:
America at War Pearl Harbor ► December 7th, 1941: Japanese Naval forces led a surprise attack on the US naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii outraged, Congress declares war on Japan the next day because of Alliances, Germany and Italy declare war on the US, bringing America into World War II in both Asia and Europe
The Home Front “Arsenal of Democracy” ► the power of American industrial output was put on display with the start of WWII ► military production boomed until America made as many supplies as the Axis powers did combined ► farm output doubled, despite a shortage of workers because of the war
Role of women 1) At home: The number of women working doubled, many of them working in factories and doing jobs previously only held by men 2) In the Service: many women served, and risked their lives in the armed forces These duties greatly increased the visibility and justification for increased women’s rights after the war Rosie the Riveter
The Draft ► In 1940, before the war had even started, Congress passed a “conscription” - a draft ► There were 1.5 million soldiers in the Army when the war began
Financing ► the U.S. was spending over $250 million a day helping the Allies ► taxes were raised, but that covered less than half the cost of the war ► War Bonds were sold – the government “borrowed” from the American people
Rationing ► supplies, including food, were low at home, as items were needed for the war ► families had books of ration stamps, allowing them to only buy limited amounts of certain items each month
War Strategies 1) Help the Soviet Union: after France surrendered, and while Britain rested, the Soviet Union fought Germany alone. The US needed to enter the war in western Europe to relieve pressure on the USSR 2) Europe first: it was decided that the Allies would try to defeat Germany first. The Allies began in North Africa, then Italy, and then D-Day: the invasion of western Europe 3) 2 fronts: for the Allies, there were two “Theaters” of the war: Europe – against Germany and ItalyEurope – against Germany and Italy the Pacific – against the Japanesethe Pacific – against the Japanese
The Atomic Bomb The Manhattan Project ► In the late 1930’s, scientists developed theories to use nuclear energy to make a super bomb ► the US decided that it was important to develop the bomb before the Germans did ► the “Manhattan Project” was the code name for the development of an Atomic Bomb. The scientific research was led by an American physicist named Robert Oppenheimer.
“Now we are all sons of bitches”. – test director Kenneth Bainbridge to Robert Oppenheimer
President Truman’s Decision After a successful test of an Atomic Bomb, President Truman had a tough decision to makeAfter a successful test of an Atomic Bomb, President Truman had a tough decision to make Not use it – and prolong the war for months or years, and sacrifice many more soldiers’ livesNot use it – and prolong the war for months or years, and sacrifice many more soldiers’ lives Use it - on a Japanese city of military importance, but kill thousands of innocent JapaneseUse it - on a Japanese city of military importance, but kill thousands of innocent Japanese August 6 th, 1945: the first Atomic Bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, JapanAugust 6 th, 1945: the first Atomic Bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, Japan August 9 th,1945: another was used on the city of NagasakiAugust 9 th,1945: another was used on the city of Nagasaki August 14 th,1945: the Empire of Japan surrendered. World War II was over!August 14 th,1945: the Empire of Japan surrendered. World War II was over!
U.S. Occupation of Japan The U.S. army occupied Japan for 7 years following the war – General McArthur was in chargeThe U.S. army occupied Japan for 7 years following the war – General McArthur was in charge The U.S. helped rebuild Japan – America wanted Japan on its side in the coming Cold WarThe U.S. helped rebuild Japan – America wanted Japan on its side in the coming Cold War
Japanese Internment Camps: Executive Order 9066