Access: Mobility Ubiquity Privacy Skills Technical Social Critical Creative Motivations Societal Personal Engagement Entertainment Information Communication Participation Creativity D IGITAL V ULNERABILITY /I NCLUSION
S OCIAL V ULNERABILITY /I NCLUSION Economic : Education Income Occupation Cultural Generation Gender Ethnicity Social Civic participation Isolation Personal Health Personality
C OMPOUND DISADVANTAGE Source: OxIS 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009
S PECIFIC VULNERABLE GROUPS : A CCESS I NEQUALITY Urban: No significant difference Ethnicity: No significant difference at the moment
C HOICE OR EXCLUSION ? Choice“Personality” Inevitability (social “pressure”) Acculturation/Socialisation ExclusionMaterial Wealth Forced choice?
R ELATIVITY AND CONTEXTUALITY OF EXCLUSION Relativity Relative deprivation can be as important if not more so than absolute deprivation. For some key clusters digitally excluded people may suffer from higher levels of disadvantage in the context of their community than other with the same levels of ‘objective’ digital exclusion. (National Audit Office report, 2009) Proxy use One third of non-users in the UK rely “..on family or friends to use the Internet on their behalf, which means they belong to networks of people able to do this for them” (Helsper & Godoy, 2011)
R EASONS FOR NON - USE OVER TIME Base: Non and Ex-users of the internet: 2005 N=876; 2007 N=773; 2009 N=612.
R EASONS FOR NON - USE OVER TIME Base: Non-users
E NGAGEMENT L ADDER (Y OUNG ADULTS ) Number of Internet users Shopping Entertainment Travel Topicalities Training Fact Checking Person to Person Network Finance Egovernment Social Network Diary Civic Participation 0 50 100 150 200 250 123456789101112 Number of activities that undertakes in total
E XAMPLES OF ( RESEARCH ) PRACTICE Case I Case I The socially isolated Case II Case II NEETs Case III Case III Ethnic Minorities Case IV Case IV Travellers/Gypsies Case V Case V Disabled individuals
C ASE III E THNIC M INORITIES “I don't think minorities in general go for that...meeting people online. Because I don't think they're that open minded, generally.” (African Caribbean teenager)
B EST P RACTICE AND I NTERVENTIONS Best practice does not start with IT but …IT can play an important role in engaging people from disadvantaged backgrounds if …inclusion is seen as a process starting from specific social, personal, cultural and economic situation, looking at access, skills, and attitudes and concerned with several types of engagement.
F OOD FOR T HOUGHT Evaluation of ‘success’ with the most vulnerable in society often requires a normative solution: What do we consider to be inclusion? Is it up to the different groups to decide what inclusion means to them?