Presentation on theme: "The Age of Imperialism. Definition Process by which one state, with superior military strength and more advanced technology, imposes its control over."— Presentation transcript:
Definition Process by which one state, with superior military strength and more advanced technology, imposes its control over the land, resources, and population of less developed regions.
Rationale Nationalism - large empires = power Industrialization - access to natural resources and cheap labor Humanitarianism - Europeans thought it was their duty to civilize non-European people Social Darwinism - Survival of the fittest people
Nationalism a sense of national consciousness; in an extreme form, one nation tries to promote its culture and interests above all others http://web.library.emory.edu/subjects/humanities/history/Nationalism/Nationalism.jpg
Nations competed for overseas empires. Britain’s lead was challenged. In the mid-1800s, Britain was the most powerful nation in the world. –It’s factories produced more good than those of any other country. –The British Navy guarded the oceans so that those goods could be shipped safely to ports around the globe. –British banks loaned the money needed to build factories, mines, and railroads worldwide. By the late 1800s, however, Germany and the United States were challenging Britain’s economic leadership. Faced with possible decline, Britain looked increasingly to its colonies for markets and resources.
Nations competed for overseas empires. Imperialism fostered rivalries. Other countries followed Britain’s lead and came to see colonies as necessary for their economic well- being. –The French and Dutch expanded their holdings and by 1900 France had an empire second in size only to Britain’s. –Spain and Portugal attempted to build new empires in Africa. –Austria-Hungary moved into the Balkans. –Russia expanded into the Caucasus, Central Asia, and Siberia. Countries that had no colonies set out to acquire them. –Belgium, Italy, and Germany all took over lands in Africa (with Germany also taking an interest in East Asia & the Pacific islands).
Nations competed for overseas empires. Imperialism fostered rivalries. (continued) Two non-European countries, the United States and Japan, also became involved in overseas expansion during this period. –Both the U.S. and Japan were interested in East Asia. –The U.S. was also deeply tied to Latin America. Increasingly, Europeans viewed an empire as a measure of national stature. Thus, the race for colonies grew out of a strong sense of national pride as well as from economic competition.
Industrialization Increased population - large population boom in Europe led to migration Great technological advances in transportation and communication Demand for raw materials such as rubber, coal, cotton and copper Continued expansion to more remote markets
Humanitarianism Christian missionaries saw Africa and Asia as fertile ground for converts Cultural Superiority - Europeans must “save” the rest of the world “White Man’s Burden” - job of white men to civilize the world http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/ahr/111.4/images/peterson_fig02b.jpg
Social Darwinism Based on Charles Darwin's theory of evolution and the survival of the fittest but applied to society and politics. The wealthy are the strong and therefore have the right to rule the poor who are weak. Strong nations will dominate weaker nations. http://www.theratandmouse.co.uk/weblog/20070604evolution-1.jpg
Nations competed for overseas empires. Europe believed in its own superiority. Following the Industrial Revolution, Europeans regarded their new technology (weaponry, telegraphs, railroads etc.) as proof they were better than other peoples. This attitude is a reflection of racism, the belief that one race is superior to others. Europeans believed that they had the right and duty to bring the results of their progress to other countries.
Administrative Styles Colonies (Direct Rule) - an area in which a foreign nation gained total control over a given region and its local population French, Germans, Portuguese European rule imposed Highly centralized No attempt to preserve local institutions
Administrative Styles Protectorates (Indirect Rule) - Local ruler kept his title, but officials of the foreign power actually controlled the region British Governor appointed by British government Local leaders advised by British Supposed to preserve African institutions Think back to your map work: why do you think the British chose to govern much of their empire through indirect rule?
Administrative Styles Spheres of Influence - region in which one nation had special economic and political privileges that were recognized by other nations Local rulers maintain control of internal affairs Europeans control areas (often near ports) Example: China http://sun.menloschool.org/~sportman/westernstudies/second/24/2003/eblock/kristinb/index_files/image004.jpg
Administrative Styles Company Rule European country granted economic and political control to trading company Ex: British East India Company (later revoked) http://www.tanap.net/library/images/archives/british_library_lo go_arms_english_eic.gif
Imperialism Scenario Missionaries, explorers and scientists went first to the area to be colonized. When threatened, troops would be sent in to protect. Engineers, government officials, builders and technicians would come next. These people were responsible for building an infrastructure (bridges, roads, mines, and dams) within the colony.
Loans were made to native rulers. European countries would then ask to use the area for economic reasons. In return the local ruler would take a percentage of the gains. The economic activity would expand until the local ruler and his people were overwhelmed with immigrants from Europe. The natives would become laborers.
What other factors made imperial powers successful? Lack of unity within region colonized (often history of tribal conflict) Unstable leadership in region colonized Technologically inferior to the imperial powers Population depleted by Europeans through war and disease
The Age of Imperialism Questions to Consider 1.( a) What countries challenged Britain’s economic leadership? (b) How was the search for colonies a response to Britain’s declining share in world trade? 2.What part did each of the following play in imperialism? (a) markets (b) raw materials (c) national pride 3.What attitude did people in industrialized countries have toward other peoples? 4.(a) What part did missionaries play in imperialism? (b) How did newspapers and writers encourage imperialism?