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Unit 3: Industrialization and Nationalism. A. Decentralized; disunity; rich in resources ▪ Hundreds of different languages ▪ Politically diverse-villages.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 3: Industrialization and Nationalism. A. Decentralized; disunity; rich in resources ▪ Hundreds of different languages ▪ Politically diverse-villages."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 3: Industrialization and Nationalism

2 A. Decentralized; disunity; rich in resources ▪ Hundreds of different languages ▪ Politically diverse-villages to large empires ▪ Religious differences-traditional, Muslim, Christian B. Early European Contact (late 1400s) ▪ Coastal-rugged geography and hostile people ▪ slave trade (West) ▪ salt trade (North) ▪ trading posts (South) ▪ by 1880-only 10% under European control (not in interior)

3 A. Interior  realm of missionaries and explorers  African “mystique” sparked interest in publications ▪ 1870s-Henry Stanley’s search for Dr. David Livingstone (well-publicized) ; opened Congo to European interest B. Belgium est. control over Congo (1880) ▪ Leopold II uses humanitarian front (end slavery) to mask exploitation of Africans ▪ Rubber plantations drained economy  led to starvation ▪ Belgium’s wealth encouraged other European nations to compete for African “pie”

4 1. Industrial Revolution -resources and markets 2. Nationalism -colonies increased nation’s prestige 3. Racism -belief in European/white racial superiority  Social Darwinism (strongest races survive) 4. Missionary zeal to “Christianize” the heathen 5. Technological/ Scientific Advancements  technology superiority (esp. in weaponry)  transportation (opened up continent to European control)  medical advancements (quinine) 6. African disunity

5 A. Berlin Conference ( )  Europe meets to divide Africa “fairly”  Guidelines for control ▪ if you can show a “just” claim ▪ if you can hold it  By 1914-only Liberia and Ethiopia NOT under European control B. Benefit to Europe  Natural Resources -gold, diamonds, rubber, copper, tin, agri. products

6  Dutch (Boers) settled Cape Town (South Africa) in 1600s as trading base  British-moved in Cape colony in 1800s 1. Boers escaped northward-“The Great Trek” 2. Were pushed into Zulus  conflict  Discovery of gold and diamonds increased European immigration 1. Boers tried to limit newcomers’ influence; blamed British  Fierce fighting breaks out; concentration camps; guerilla fighting; innocent civilians killed  “modern war” foreshadowed future horrors  Britain won and est. Union of So. Africa (under British control)

7 1. The Zulu Wars  British invade Zulu Territory and conquer this powerful tribe in 6 months; made them a colony 2. French West Africa  Malinke tribe wages war against French control in Guinea for 15 yrs; finally defeated in German East Africa  Maji Maji Rebellion (1905): Africans believe that spirits will protect them in rebellion against Germans; tens of thousands killed before uprising is squelched

8  Emperor Menelik II took steps to modernize Ethiopia  Italy invades Ethiopia over treaty dispute  Menelik’s modern army able to defeat Italians in less than a year Menelik II

9 Causes:  European nations needed raw materials  European powers wanted power & land  Europeans strongly influenced by Social Darwinism Effects:  Africans lost their land and independence  Many Africans died resisting the Europeans


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