DAVID LIVINGSTONE (1813- 1873) Scottish missionary 1841-1873 – lived in central Africa – Explored Africa Named Lake Victoria after the British queen – Converted many Africans to Christianity – Wrote books on Africa which piqued foreign interest 1871 – reported “lost” – “Found” by Henry Stanley – “Dr. Livingstone, I presume?” – Video Video – Song Song
Exploration Dr. Livingstone, I Presume?” David Livingstone Doctor/Missionary Mapping the “Dark Continent” Open the interior of Africa for commerce & Christianity David Livingstone
The Scramble for Africa King Leopold II of Belgium # 1. Colonization of Africa by Europeans 1880-1914 #3 Great Britain, France, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Germany, Belgium
Imperialism: The policy by a stronger nation to attempt to create an empire by dominating weaker nations economically, politically, culturally, or militarily.
A coaling station for steamships, Cape Town, South Africa How Did Imperialism Begin?
Economic Motives #1 Industrialized nations sought: Raw materials Natural resources A cheap labor supply New marketplaces for manufactured goods Control means of production
The Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain in the mid-18 th century Britain’s advantages The spread of industrialization
Technological Advances The steam engine Better transportation Increased exploration Improvements in communication The steamboat Herald (with mounted machine guns) on the Zambezi river in Africa One of the first steam engines
Cecil Rhodes British imperialist who made huge profits from Africa’s natural resources Founder of the state of Rhodesia in Africa #9
This cartoon depicts British imperial ambitions to control the entire African continent. “The Rhodes Colossus”
Motives #1 Religious: to spread the benefits of Christianity and Western Culture Political: competition fuel by Nationalism, Empire Building
Justification for Imperialism A desire to “civilize” non-Europeans also spurred the development of imperialism Social Darwinism Darwin’s handwritten cover page for The Origin of Species Herbert Spencer
Describe 3 examples of European ethnocentrism in the political cartoon. Christianity Civilization
Imperialism Quote “If you woke up one morning and found that somebody had come to your house, and had declared that the house belonged to him, you would naturally be surprised, and you would like to know by what arrangement.” –Jomo Kenyatta – 1 st President of Kenya How does this quote show an African reaction to European Imperialism in Africa? Use 3 examples
Imperialism Quote Desmond Tutu … “when the missionaries came to Africa, they had the Bible and we had the land. They said ‘let us close our eyes and pray’. When we opened them, we had the Bible, and they had the land”. How does this quote show an African reaction to European Imperialism in Africa? Use 3 examples
The Berlin Conference 1884 #4 Rules to divide Africa among European powers to avoid conflict among European powers= Artificial Borders
By 1914, only two African nations remained independent Liberia and Ethiopia #2 European Control of Africa
British troops fighting forces in Benin in 1897 The Maxim Gun #5
Methods of Management Indirect Rule: This form relied on using the existing African political rulers. –Britain sometimes asked local chiefs to accept British rule and legislative councils were formed and included colonial (European) officials and merchants. The idea was that these councils would train the Africans, and at some point in time, these territories would be able to rule themselves, much like Australia and Canada.
Methods of Management Direct Rule: The French and most other European countries preferred stronger control because they felt that Africans were not civilized enough to rule themselves. –They adopted a policy of paternalism, in which the Europeans acted like the Africans’ parents in providing for their survival, but denying them rights. –They avoided training locals, and instead, brought along Europeans to rule the Africans. –The French also supported a policy of assimilation, in which the native population would take on French customs and culture and be like them. African customs and culture were looked at as inferior, or not as good as French culture.
Direct vs. Indirect Rule #6 European nations chose one of two different paths when it came to colonial rule: Indirect rule: colonies were ruled through existing traditional rulers Example: Nigeria Direct rule: the colony was directly administered by the colonizer Example: Senegal Result: loss of power and influence By Traditional rulers
Cash Crop/Money Economy #7 Africans sold labor to make money to pay taxes Problems –Created dependence on Colonial rulers
#8 Purpose of the Railroads was to extract wealth
#9 Aim of Colonial Rulers To benefit Colonial economies accomplished by cash crop system and forced labor King Leopold II of Belgium –Ruled harshly over Congo Free State Cecil Rhodes
5-8 Million Victims! (50% of Popul.) It is blood-curdling to see them (the soldiers) returning with the hands of the slain, and to find the hands of young children amongst the bigger ones evidencing their bravery...The rubber from this district has cost hundreds of lives, and the scenes I have witnessed, while unable to help the oppressed, have been almost enough to make me wish I were dead... This rubber traffic is steeped in blood, and if the natives were to rise and sweep every white person on the Upper Congo into eternity, there would still be left a fearful balance to their credit. -- Belgian Official
#10 African Resistance and failure Many Africans resisted European rule –Millions of Africans died –Europeans = superior military technology North Africa: Algerians fought French West Africa: Ibo and Fulani fought British Congo Free State: 20 years of fighting Ethiopia exception: European training preserved independence