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Anatomy & Embryology Student Presentations’ Program 2011-2012 Parts of the respiratory system of the elephant.

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Presentation on theme: "Anatomy & Embryology Student Presentations’ Program 2011-2012 Parts of the respiratory system of the elephant."— Presentation transcript:

1 Anatomy & Embryology Student Presentations’ Program Parts of the respiratory system of the elephant

2 The respiratory tract of elephants is comprised of the conducting portion (external nares, nasal tubes, internal nares, pharynx, larynx and trachea) and the respiratory portion (bronchi, bronchioles, alveolar duct and alveolar sac in lung). Sound is produced from larynx. The lungs are attached to the thoracic walls and diaphragm, oblitherating the potential pleural Picture or movie is here if needed

3 pressure to assist breathing in other mammals. The respiratory system of the elephant is quite exceptional in a number of ways. The elephant lacks a pleural cavity. This means the lungs are directly attached to the walls of the chest cavity and to the diaphragm. Thus respiratory movements are solely dependent on chest musculature, since there is no mechanism of inflating the lungs by negative pressure in the pleural cavity as is usual in mammals. As a result of this unique physiology, the elephant would find it difficult to breathe if any restraint or pressure is placed on the movement of the chest and diaphragm, essentially over time suffocating from its own tremendous weight.

4 Air enters the lungs through internal nares which are located high on the forehead. The position of the nares is indicated by the plate-size circle of skin. An elephant can breathe through its mouth as well as through its trunk, so it can retain water or dust in the trunk without having to hold its breathe. The trunk the trunk is a fusion of the nose and upper lip, elongated and specialized to become the elephant's most important and versatile appendage. The elephant's trunk is sensitive enough to pick up a single blade of grass, yet strong enough ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………

5 to rip off branshes of a tree. It is composed of muscles, vessels, nerves, fat and other connective tissues, and skin. The trunk evolved from fused muscles of nose, upper lip and cheeks. It contains no bone or cartilage, although cartilage is found around the nostrils and at the base of the trunk. The muscles are include superficial and Picture or movie is here if needed

6 internal muscles. The total number of a muscles is approximately 150,000.. Superficial muscles run longitudinally along the dorsal, ventral and lateral aspects of the trunk. The internal muscles are deep to the superficial mucles and include radial muscles and transverse muscles. The two nostrils are separated by a membranous septum and are connected to openings in the frontal aspect of the cranium. The functions of the trunk include feeding, watering, dusting, smelling, touching, communicating …………………………………………………………………

7 (Touch and sound promoter), defense and others. The trunk of an adult Asian elephant can hold about 10 liters of water. Lungs However, elephants do not have pleural cavity. Rather, their ample lungs are attached directly to the chest cavity wall and the diaphragm. The lungs are divided into smaller units by a network of thick, stretchy septa. Each of the septal units measures approximately 10mm3. They are suspended on the septa in …………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………

8 order to prevent the dependent alveoli from being compressed under the weight of the body or due to gravitation. The nature of the septa is such that they work to keep the intra- pulmonary system from being crushed due to gravitation by using tethering forces.


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