Presentation on theme: "3/17/08 Respiratory System Chapter 21 – Day 1. 3/17/08 Respiratory System Overview Respiratory System Functions Expulsion of CO 2 External vs. Internal."— Presentation transcript:
3/17/08 Respiratory System Overview Respiratory System Functions Expulsion of CO 2 External vs. Internal Respiration Organization – Upper & Lower Pathway of O 2
3/17/08 Respiratory System O 2 delivery to cells is critical & the respiratory system makes it possible for O 2 from the atmosphere to enter the blood Function ♦O 2 transport to the blood ♦CO 2 transport from the blood ♦Some role in speech (in terms of air movement) Do we really breath out CO 2 ? How does the body take in O 2 & expel CO 2 ?
3/17/08 Special organs ♦Nose ♦Pharynx ♦Larynx ♦Trachea ♦Bronchi ♦Lungs - exchange of gases takes place here Additional help comes from skeletal muscles Respiratory System Direct air into/out of lungs
3/17/08 Process of Respiration Physical movement of air ♦= External Respiration Use of O 2 in cells for metabolism ♦= Internal/Cellular respiration
3/17/08 Pathway of Air/ O 2 Each component is composed of special tissues which aid in their function Passageways & accessory structures in the nose and pharynx = upper respiratory system Nose: external & internal nose ♦Outside: cartilage & skin structure with 2 openings = external nares ♦Directs air into nasal passageways ♦External = object of “vanity’ “nose job” = Rhinoplasty – surgery to repair or alter nose structure – involves addition or removal of tissue Involves inconspicuous incisions & local anesthesia
3/17/08 Pathway of Air/ O 2 - Skull Nostrils lead into 2 chambers separated by the nasal septum Right and left chambers of the nasal cavity Walls of the nasal septum = ethmoid & vomer bones Protrusions of the bone = nasal conchae (superior, middle, inferior) ♦Allows air to swirl in the nasal cavity – airborne particles get trapped in mucus ♦Cavity is lined with mucous membrane ♦Mucus is secreted by the paranasal sinuses (=air cavity with epithelium in the skull) Floor of the nasal cavity = hard palate (roof of the mouth)
3/17/08 Function of the Nose Directs air into the nasal passageway Warms air via blood circulation Location for olfaction sensation Traps particles & microbes = non-specific defense ♦These then get swallowed with mucous
3/17/08 Pathway of Air/ O 2 – Pharynx and on From the nasal cavity, air enters internal nares then the pharynx (throat) Pharynx ♦Shared by digestive and respiratory systems ♦It is a muscular tube lined with mucous epithelium Just behind the nasal cavity = nasopharynx
3/17/08 Mechanics of Respiration You will cover the details of aspects of the respiratory system in lab and lecture on Wednesday For lab today you also need to be familiar with Pulmonary Ventilation (the fancy way to say “breathing”) Air is pulled in & pushed out by a mechanical process ♦= ventilation ♦This process involves the diaphragm and skeletal muscles (intercostal muscles) Breathing consists of 2 phases: ♦Inspiration air is taken into the lungs ♦Expiration Air passes out of the lungs
3/17/08 Mechanics of Respiration Air is moving in and out of the lungs due to pressure gradients We will cover the mechanism in more detail in lecture, but be sure you read the introduction to each lab and to each section/activity…you will be responsible for the information presented there in lab and lecture! Happy breathing
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