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By the Asians -Michelle Tung -Helen Tran -Mengni Wang

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1 By the Asians -Michelle Tung -Helen Tran -Mengni Wang
The New York Colony By the Asians -Michelle Tung -Helen Tran -Mengni Wang

2 It all started... Dutch and Swedish settle the first middle colony and named it New Netherland 1664, King Charles II of England wanted New Netherland so he threatened to start a war but Dutch and Swedish settlers gave up without a fight King Charles II gives land to his brother James (Duke of York and Albany) and then James splits apart New Jersey and New York

3 ~New York Colony~ One of the original 13 colonies
Part of the middle colonies Lasted 1626 until 1776 Joined the rebellion against Great Britain and became a US state in 1776

4 ~Founding of the New York colony~
Founded in 1626 by Peter Minuit NYC used to be called “New Amsterdam” Named after the Duke of York & Albany (brother of King Charles II of England) Reason for founding was for trade and profit

5 History original name- Province of New York (New York and Vermont)
1638- Swedish settlement led by Peter Minuit starting the New Sweden colony 1646- Peter Stuyvesant ( ) became Dutch governor of the New Netherlands 1655- Dutch defeat Swedes on the Deleware and Stuyvesant took possesion of the New Sweden colony 1664- Dutch lose to New Amsterdam to the British and then was renamed New York Colony became a state on July 26, 1788

6 Climate and Geography Geography - Mountains in the northeast, lowlands from Lake Ontario along the Canadian border. Atlantic coastal plain. The general geography of the Middle Colonies had a mix of the New England and Southern features but had fertile soil and land that was suited to farming. River flows through the area made it easy for inland farmers to trade. Climate - Middle Colonies had a mild climate with warm summers and mild winters that were suited to farming and agriculture

7 Economy New York was referred to as a breadbasket colony because it grew so many crops, especially wheat. The wheat was ground into flour in flour mills then shipped to England A typical farm was 50 to 150 acres consisting of a house, barn, yard and fields Exported agricultural products & natural resources but were also able to manufacture iron ore products such as plows, tools, kettles, locks, nails, & large block of iron which are exported to England prospered because of the good trading set-up with the Indians

8 Government/Freedom has a governor and elected assembly
charter of Liverties gives free rights to all Dutch and English settlers colony was run by a governor appointed by the king of England governor make all laws and there was little self-government Colonist freedom- right to elect mayor of New York City and the chance to set up an assembly (didn't last long) first state constitution in 1777 (rewritten many times) capital was variously located at Kingston, White Plains, Poughkeepsie, and New York City before it was permanent in Albany use to be tyrannical when Peter Stuyvesant ruled

9 Rights colonial courts also protected individual freedoms
example officials arrested John Peter Zenger for printing a false statement that damaged the reputation of the governor of New York. Andrew Hamilton, Zenger's attorney, argued that Zenger could pulblish whatever he wish as long as it was true

10 Before the battle of Nicolls and Stuyvesant
For more than 300 years, England & Holland were BFFs, but after Thirty Years war, which ended with Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, the power of Spain was crushed and Dutch had nothing to tear from his Catholic Majesty rose to dispute with English over control of the seas One cause that determined the English on the Conquest of Amsterdam was the fact that Dutch ignored the Navigation law Another cause was that Dutch colony on Hudson, separated from New England from other English colonies, threatened British dominion

11 Nicools v.s. Stuyvesant Richard Nicools of royal navy, set out with a small fleet and some king's veterans. Reaching New England, Nicolls was joined by some militia of Connecticut and Long Island, and soon sailed for the mouth of Hudson Peter Stuyvesant, governor of Fort Orange, heard of the fleets arrival at Boston but thought they were enforcing a service set on the Puritans so he went far up the river to quell Indian disturbance. He heard Nicolls was moving toward New Amsterdam and sped down the river. Nicolls demanded surrend of the fort

12 Nicools v.s. Stuyvesant (cont)
Stuyvesant refused at first. He tore up to bits a letter sent to him by Nicolls and mustered forces for defense. But people weren't with him because they were tired of the tyrannical government in which they had no part so the governor had to yield Fort surrended (1664) without bloodshed New Amsterdam became New York City after upper Hudson yielded. For Orange became Albany (name after another James's, Duke of York, title) and all of New Netherland passed under English control.

13 Famous Battle Battle of Long Island:
military conflict between Kingdom of Great Britain British army & Hessian v.s. American August 27, 1776 Brooklyn Height, Long Island, New York George Washington (American) lost

14 Battle of Long Island Leader & Commanders:
American- George Washington, Israel Putman, William Alexander British- Lord Charles Cornwallis, Sir Henry Clinton, Sir William Howe Strength of Forces American forces British forces Number of men killed in the battle of long island American- 300 British- 64 Number of men wounded American- 800 British- 293 Number of men captured American- 1000 British- 31

15 Random Facts Major Cities/Towns - New York City & Albany
Religion - Don’t have specific religion (freedom for Quakers, Catholics, Lutherans, Jews and others) Raw Material - Good farmland, timber, furs and coal. Iron ore was a particularly important natural resource Industry - Flax and hemp farms were established in the Middle colonies furthering the textiles industries. Major industries are manufacturing (ship building and iron works) and agriculture (grain, rice, indigo, and wheat) Has big port cities

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