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Classification. Taxonomy and Evolution Taxonomy Taxonomy – (a branch of Biology) involves the identification, naming, and classification of species To.

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Presentation on theme: "Classification. Taxonomy and Evolution Taxonomy Taxonomy – (a branch of Biology) involves the identification, naming, and classification of species To."— Presentation transcript:

1 Classification

2 Taxonomy and Evolution Taxonomy Taxonomy – (a branch of Biology) involves the identification, naming, and classification of species To reduce confusion in discussing organisms Trying to make sense of the environment Showing evolutionary Links Predicting characteristics shared by members of a group One goal of taxonomy is to assign a universal scientific name to each known species

3 The Linnaean System of Classification Most widely used Developed by botanist Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778)

4 The Linnaean System of Classification Two Main Characteristics 1.A two part Latin name for each species and a hierarchy, or ordering, of species into broader and broader groups Binomial Binomial – Linnaean System assigns a 2-part name, to each species 1 st Part – the genus the species belongs 2 nd Part – one species within the genus 2.The system groups species into broader categories; starting with genus in the binomial Closely related species are grouped into the same genus

5 The Linnaean System of Classification The first name in the binomial nomenclature system is always capitalized and it refers to the genus The second name always begins with a small letter and refers to the species Both are always written in italics when typed or underlined when written by hand. Most words are Latin or Greek in origin Genus Species

6 The Linnaean System of Classification Early classification organisms were placed into 2 groups: Plants Animals As more organisms were discovered as well as the invention of the microscope early system had to be modified.

7 The Linnaean System of Classification Five Kingdoms Most widely accepted system Kingdom Plantae – plants (cactus to moss) Kingdom Animalia – animals Kingdom Fungi – Fungi and mold Kingdom Protoctista – protozoa and algae Kingdom Prokaryotae – the bacteria

8 The Linnaean System of Classification Seven Taxa System was established because of the hundreds of thousands of different plant and animals: Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species

9 Other Classification Feeding Habits: CarnivoreHerbivore Habitat: Land dwelling / Aquatic Daily activity: Nocturnal/Diurnal (active in the day time) Risk: harmless/venomous Anatomy: vertebrates/invertebrates Depending on the reason there is no right or wrong way to classify as long as you are consistent

10 Some Plant Phyla 4 Phyla Most Familiar: 1.Bryophyta – includes plants of very short stature (moss) 2.Filicinophyta – Ferns and Horse tails 3.Coniferophyta – Conifer phylum (cedar & pine trees) 4.Angiospermophyta – include all flowering plants which have their seeds surrounded by fruit

11 Plant Characteristics Vegetative Characteristics Bryophytes are non-vascular because they do not have a true vascular system Xylem Tissue – transports water and nutrients up from the roots Phloem Tissue – transports water and nutrients from the leaves towards the stem and roots

12 Plant Characteristics Conifers can be recognized by woody stems and leaves in the form of needles or scales Angiosperms are recognized by their flower and seeds in their fruit

13 Reproductive Characteristics Bryophytes do not produce flowers or seeds They produce spores Microscopic reproductive devises Spores are transported by rainwater and humidity This is why they are found in damp habitats Angiosperms rely on birds, insects, and mammals to transport pollen The sexual reproductive organ of angiosperms is the flower

14 Some Animal Phyla Six Invertebrate Animal Phyla 1.Porifera Sponges – very simple marine animals Sessile – stuck in place They do not have mouths or digestive tracts They feed by pumping water through their tissues to filter out food No muscle or nerve tissue or distinct internal organs

15 Some Animal Phyla 2.Cnidarians Corals, sea anemones, jellyfish, hydra, floating colonies (Portuguese man-of-war) Nematocysts – stinging cells One characteristics common to all in this group Some are sessile others are fee – swimming or float using currents Catch food with their tentacles and they have a gastric pouch with one opening

16 Some Animal Phyla 3.Platyhelminthes Flatworms They have only one body cavity A gut with one opening for food to enter and waste to exit No heart or lungs Tapeworm

17 Some Animal Phyla 4.Annelida Segmented worms Earthworms, leeches, and polychaetes Bodies are divided up into segments separated by rings They have bristles on their bodies (not always visible) They have a gastric tract where they have a mouth on one end and intestines and an opening on the other end where waste are released polychaetes

18 Some Animal Phyla 5.Mollusca Most are aquatic Snails, clams, and octopuses Produce shells using calcium Bodies are not segmented 6.Arthopoda Have a hard exoskeleton made with chitin, segmented bodies, and limbs that are jointed Limbs can be used for walking, swimming, are eating Spiders, insects, scorpions, and crustaceans (crabs & shrimp) Over a million different species all over the world

19 Molecular Data as a Taxonomic Tool Relatedness is measured by comparing genes and gene products (proteins) The more sequences match, the closer they are related. Molecular data is independent of structural data Structural is a traditional method Accuracy will depend on molecular data supported by structural data Fossil data supports: Whales are closely related to Hippos, pigs, camels…. Supported by molecular data

20 Phylogenetic Trees DNA began a new era in Taxonomy in the 1960’s Along with computers The pattern of branches can tell you how closely related species are The deeper the “split” the further “away” the two species are from each other The closer the “split” the more related


22 Phylogenetic Trees Clade Clade – each evolutionary branch in a polygenetic tree Clades can nest within larger clades Each item in a clade may be an individual species genus, a family or other taxonomic group

23 Cladistics Method mostly used today Key rule: all organisms of a clade share homologous structures that do not occur outside the clade Derived Characters Derived Characters – unique features that unite the organisms as a clade Cladogram Cladogram – a phylogenetic diagram that specifies the derived characteristics of clades

24 Using A Dichotomous Key 1.You look at the first section of the key which has a pair of sentences describing a characteristic 2.Next, you look at the organism to see if the particular characteristic described in the first line is present in the organism 3.If the answer is yes, then go to the end of its line and find the number of the next pair of statements to look at, follow the number given and continue until the end 4.Keep going until the end of the line has a name instead of a number If you have answered each question correctly, that will be the name of your organism

25 Using A Dichotomous Key

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