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5.5: Classification. 5.5.1: Binomial system of nomenclature The scientific name of a species consists of two words; both words are italicized but only.

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Presentation on theme: "5.5: Classification. 5.5.1: Binomial system of nomenclature The scientific name of a species consists of two words; both words are italicized but only."— Presentation transcript:

1 5.5: Classification

2 5.5.1: Binomial system of nomenclature The scientific name of a species consists of two words; both words are italicized but only the first word is capitalized. For example Homo sapiens, the scientific name for humans, indicates that humans are one kind of ape in the genus Homo. Benefits of the binomial nomenclature system include: 1) It is much easier to identify a species with this system. 2) Information about a species can be obtained easily online with just two words. 3) Its obvious if two species are members of the same genus. 4) All countries use the same name, avoiding difficulties of translation. 5) Scientific names remain the same through time (unless there is a compelling reason to change it).

3 Outline the use of the binomial system of nomenclature in Campanula persicifolia. [2] N10/4/BIOLO/HP2/ENG/TZ0/XX first name/Campanula for genus / second name/persicifolia for species; (all) members of Campanula persicifolia share special/unique features; two names make a unique combination to designate species / worldwide recognized nomenclature;

4 5.5.2: Heirachy of taxa There are 7 levels in the hierarchy of taxa: K ingdom K eep P hylum P oor C lass C harlie O rder O ut F amily F rom G enus and G irls S pecies. S chools

5 M08/4/BIOLO/SP2/ENG/TZ2/XX+ Living organisms are classified according to their characteristics using a hierarchy of taxa. State the missing taxa in the table below.

6 A Phylum is a member of a Kingdom A species is a member of a Genus A genus is a member of a Family A Family is a member of an Order An Order is a member of a Class A Class is a member of a Phylum

7 Common name: the ginkgo tree Kingdom Plantae Phylum Ginkgophyta Class Ginkgopsida Order Ginkgoales Family Ginkgoaceae Genus Ginkgo Species Ginkgo biloba Common name: human ape Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Mammalia Order Primates Family Homonidae Genus Homo Species Homo sapiens

8 5.5.3: Plant phyla Bryophyta Filicinophyta

9 5.3.3: Plant Phyla Coniferophyta Angiospermophyta

10 Plant PhylaRootsStemsLeavesReproductive parts Angiospermophyta (flowering plants) True roots that can be wide-spreading Stems have support tissue and can therefore grow very tall. Vast diversity of leaf shapes. Produce flowers. Seeds not in cones. Coniferophyta (conifers) True roots that grow deep. Stems have support tissue and can therefore grow very tall Water-conserving leaves (needle-shaped,thick waxy cuticle, few stomata) Do not produce flowers. Seeds protected in cones. Filicinophyta (ferns)True roots present but simple. Short stems that grow at, or just under, the ground surface. Leaves have numerous subdivisions and sporangia underneath. Do not produce seeds Do not produce flowers. Produce spores. Bryophyta (mosses)Lacking true roots; have rhizoids instead Lacking stemsLacking leaves Do not produce seeds Do not produce flowers. Produce spores.

11 Plants are a diverse group of eukaryotic organisms. Describe the different characteristics of the bryophyta, filicinophyta, coniferophyta and angiospermophyta. [9] M10/4/BIOLO/SP2/ENG/TZ1/XX

12 At least one characteristic from each group is needed for maximum credit. bryophyta have no roots / only have rhizoids; bryophyta have simple leaves/stems / only a thallus; bryophyta produce spores in capsule; byrophyta are nonvascular; bryophyte exhibit (pronounced) alternation of generations / a significant gametophyte generation; filicinophyta have roots, stems and leaves; filicinophyta (often) have divided/pinnate leaves; filicinophyta produce spores in sporangia/spores on the undersides of leaves; filicinophyta exhibit alternation of generations; filicinophyta have primitive vascular tissue / no true xylem and phloem; coniferophyta have woody stems; coniferophyta (often) have narrow leaves/needles/scales; coniferophyta produce seeds in cones/unenclosed seeds; angiospermophyta have flowers; angiospermophyta have ovules in ovaries; angiospermophyta produce seeds (with hard coats) in fruits; [9 max]

13 Using simple external recognition features, distinguish between the plant phyla bryophyta and angiospermophyta. [4] M10/4/BIOLO/SP2/ENG/TZ2/XX+

14 5.5.4: Animal phyla Porifera Cnidaria

15 5.5.4: Animal phyla PlatyhelminthesAnnelida

16 5.5.4: Animal phyla Mollusca Arthropoda

17 Animal PhylaSymmetry Support structures MouthAnusAdditional Porifer (sponges) AsymetricalSpiculeslacking Pores cover surface Cnidaria (jellyfish, corals) Radial Hydrostatic or CaCO3 present Tentacles Platyhelminthes (flatworms/tapeworms) BilateralHydrostaticpresent Flat bodies/ no appendages Annelida (leeches, worms) Bilateral Hydrostatic or CaCO3 present Ring-shaped segments Mollusca (snails, squid, octopus) BilateralHydrostaticpresent Radula Arthropoda (insects, spiders, crustaceans) Bilateral Exoskeleton made of chitin present Segmented bodies/ jointed appendages

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19 5.5.5: Dichotomous Key

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21 N05/4/BIOLO/SP2/ENG/TZ0/XX


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