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Diversity of Life: Introduction to Biological Classification By Deanne Erdmann, MS BioEd Online.

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Presentation on theme: "Diversity of Life: Introduction to Biological Classification By Deanne Erdmann, MS BioEd Online."— Presentation transcript:

1 Diversity of Life: Introduction to Biological Classification By Deanne Erdmann, MS BioEd Online

2 Why Do We Classify Organisms? Biologists group organisms to represent similarities and proposed relationships. Classification systems change with expanding knowledge about new and well-known organisms. Tacitus bellus BioEd Online

3 History of the Kingdom System brief-history-of-the-kingdoms-of-life/

4 Leucaena leucocephala Lead tree Classification Binomial Nomenclature Two part name (Genus, species) Hierarchical Classification Seven Taxonomic Categories Systematics Study of the evolution of biological diversity BioEd Online

5 Carolus von Linnaeus ( ) Swedish scientist who laid the foundation for modern taxonomy Binomial Nomenclature Carolus von Linnaeus Two-word naming system Genus Noun, Capitalized, Underlined or Italicized Species Descriptive, Lower Case, Underlined or Italicized BioEd Online

6 Hierarchical Classification Taxonomic categories KingdomKing PhylumPhilip ClassCame OrderOver FamilyFor GenusGood SpeciesSoup BioEd Online

7 Kingdoms and Domains BacteriaArchaeaEukarya BacteriaArchaeaProtistaPlantaeFungiAnimalia MoneraProtistaPlantaeFungiAnimalia The three-domain system The six-kingdom system The traditional five-kingdom system BioEd Online

8 Systematics: Evolutionary Classification of Organisms Systematics is the study of the evolution of biological diversity, and combines data from the following areas. Fossil record Comparative homologies Cladistics Comparative sequencing of DNA/RNA among organisms Molecular clocks BioEd Online

9 Taxonomic Diagrams MammalsTurtlesLizards and Snakes CrocodilesBirdsMammalsTurtlesLizards and Snakes CrocodilesBirds CladogramPhylogenetic Tree BioEd Online


11 Dichotomous Keys Identify Organisms Dichotomous keys versus evolutionary classification Dichotomous keys contain pairs of contrasting descriptions. After each description, the key directs the user to another pair of descriptions or identifies the organism. Example: 1.a) Is the leaf simple? Go to 2 b) Is the leaf compound? Go to 3 2.a) Are margins of the leaf jagged? Go to 4 b) Are margins of the leaf smooth? Go to 5 BioEd Online

12 Dichotomous key es/htmls/animated_biology/unit7/bio_ch21_0657_ab_ tree.html


14 Plant Phyla bryophyta Filicinophyta Coniferophyta Angiospermophyta

15 Bryophyta (bryo-: moss) mosses, liverworts and hornworts stems radial symmetry (mosses) stems bilateral symmetry (liverworts), no lignin no true leaves or roots no cuticle. reproductive structure are called sporangium which are on long stalks with capsules on end. In this image the spore is released from the sporangium to develop into another plant.

16 Filicinophyta (ferns) leaves roots non woody stems divided leaves height up to 20 m reproduction: sporangia (sori) contain reproductive spores

17 Coniferophytes (conifers and pines) trees (100m), shrubs, woody (lignin) stems, waxy narrow needle like leaves. vascular system (tracheids) reproduction: monoecious, microsporophylls (male) non motile gametes often with air bladders for water/ air dispersal. macrosporophylls (female) ovule on cone scale

18 Angiospermophyta (flowering plants and grasses) roots stems leaves. vascular bundles (xylem/ phloem ) waxy cuticle, annual or perennial up to 100m reproduction: ovules in an enclosed carpel structure. pollen grains produced from anthers variety of pollen transfers vectors

19 Animal Phyla (just the invertebrates for now…) Porifera (sponges) Cnidaria (jellyfish…) Platyhelminthes (flatworms) Annelida (segmented worms) Mollusca (snails, clams, octopus…) Arthropoda (insects, crustaceans, spiders...)













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