Row 1, Col 1 The process of cumulative change in the heritable Characteristics of a population Define Evolution.
1,2 VARIATION What do members of a species show?
1,3 Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order Family, Genus, Species List the 7 levels in the hierarchy of taxa.
1,4 All three belong to the same genus But they belong to different species What is a statement that most accurately describes the plants Clarkia cylindrica, Clarkia deflexa, and Clarkia similis?
2,1 produce offspring What do populations tend to do more of that the environment cannot support?
2,2 1.Meiosis 2.Fertilization EXPLAIN!!! How does sexual reproduction promote variation in species?
2,3 First name always capitalized Refers to name of genus Second name in lower case Refers to name of species Written in italics or underlined if handwritten Reasons for this? Outline the binomial system of nomenclature.
2,4 Meiosis—crossing over and chiasma forming in Prophase 1 Random orientation and assortment of homologous Chromosomes at metaphase 1 Fertilization by chance—one of many male gametes Number of different gametes is 2^n Genes/alleles combined from two parents Describe how sexual reproduction promotes genetic variation within a species.
3,1 Too many offspring and not enough resources High demand for water, space, nutrients, sunlight but limited supply Consequence is competition for resources to stay alive STRUGGLE FOR SURVIVAL Territorial habits of animals Trees grow taller to compete for sunlight Deforestation (animals/plants vs. humans) Explain the consequence of potential overproduction of offspring.
3,2 Overproduction of offspring and natural variation due to genetic Differences within offspring (useful genes lead to better chance of survival) Poorly adapted characteristics less successful at accessing resources Well adapted characteristics more successful better chance of maturing Survive to adulthood successful organisms have a chance to reproduce Pass on genes to next generation Accumulation of changes in heritable characteristics in population leads To gene pool being changed Explain how natural selection leads to evolution.
3,3 Bryophyta: non-vascular plants (no true vascular transport Tissue inside xylem/phloem); produce spores that are transported By water and ground humidity; very short statue; mosses Filicinophyta: vascular plants; produce spores that are spread by Water And ground humidity; ferns Coniferophyta: woody stems with needle leaves or scales; use wind To reproduce by seed cones with seed scales; cedar, juniper, fir, pine trees Angiospermophyta: flowers and fruit; rely on birds and insects for Pollination from flowers; fruits hold seeds Name characteristics of bryophyta, filicinophyta, coniferophyta, and angiospermophyta.
3,4 ex: antibiotic resistance in bacteria; beak size of Darwin’s Finches Populations grow exponentially. More offspring than the Environment can sustain. Populations still remain constant. Individuals in populations show variation. Mutations are a source of Variation. Individuals may have characteristics better suited for the Environment. The variation has to be heritable. Those individuals Will survive and reproduce and leave more offspring. Population Will tend to accumulate the adaptation. Population will evolve. Theory Proposed by Darwin. With reference to one example, discuss the theory of evolution by natural selection.
4,1 Fossil Record: life 500 million years ago very different than today. Even though extensive oceans, fish fossils only found in rock 500 Million years old or younger (15% of history) No top predators of today existed during dinosaurs. Many living organisms have no identical form in fossil record. Artificial selection: breeders learn to choose the males and females With the most desirable genetic traits based on their offspring’s traits Certain combinations of genes exist today that did not exist before due To selective breeding. Homologous structure: similar in form/function found in dissimilar Species. Humans, whales, bats have pentadactyl limbs. Common ancestor. Outline the evidence of evolution provided by fossil records, selective breeding of domesticated animals, and homologous structures.
4,2 Ex.1 antibiotic resistance in bacteria: antibiotics given to kill/inhibit Growth of bacteria. Most bacteria die but some with a genetic mutation Survive. Multiplies, leading to further infection once antibiotics stopped. Same antibiotics given again, does not help. Resistant to this med. Mutations and plasmid transfer within bacteria. New strains of syphilis And TB. Ex.2 pesticide resistance in rats: kills most of rats. Some survive due to Natural variations. Reproduce and have resistance offspring. Re-spray Pesticide but to little or no effect. New pesticide needed. Explain two exs. Of evolution in response to environmental change.
4,3 Porifera: sponges; sessile (stuck in place); no mouths/digestive tracts; Filter feed; no muscle or nerve tissue or internal organs. Cnidaria: corals and jellies; stinging cells; some are sessile others are Free swimming; catch food with tentacles/gastric pouch Platyhelminthes: flatworms; one body cavity (gut, opening for food and One for waste); no heart/lungs Annelida: segmented worms; bristles on bodies; gastric tracts Mollusca: aquatic, snails, clams, octopuses; produce shell with Calcium Arthropoda: hard exoskeleton w/chitin, segmented bodies, jointed limbs; Insects, spiders, crabs, shrimps; over a million species Distinguish between porifera, cnidaria, platyhelminthes, annelida, mollusca, and arthropoda.
4,4 Dichotomous Key Scavenger Hunt! Apply and design a key for a group of up to 8 organisms.
5,1 Type the answer for 5,1 here. (Type the question for 5,1 here.)?
5,2 Type the answer for 5,2 here. (Type the question for 5,2 here.)?
5,3 Type the answer for 5,3 here. (Type the question for 5,3 here.)?
5,4 Type the answer for 5,4 here. (Type the question for 5,4 here.)?
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