7 Any Agent causing disease. Usually a living microorganism.Capable of producing infection.
8 Prevention Hand washing Knowing the Chain of Infection Vaccines Avoiding overuse of antibioticsAsceptic Techniques
9 DefinitionMethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is caused by a strain of staph bacteria that's become resistant to the antibiotics commonly used to treat ordinary staph infections.Most MRSA infections occur in people who've been in hospitals or other health care settings, such as nursing homes and dialysis centers. When it occurs in these settings, it's known as health care-associated MRSA (HA- MRSA). HA-MRSA infections typically are associated with invasive procedures or devices, such as surgeries, intravenous tubing or artificial joints.Another type of MRSA infection has occurred in the wider community — among healthy people. This form, community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA), often begins as a painful skin boil. It's spread by skin-to-skin contact. At- risk populations include groups such as high school wrestlers, child care workers and people who live in crowded conditions.MRSADefinitionMethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is caused by a strain of staph bacteria that's become resistant to the antibiotics commonly used to treat ordinary staph infections.Most MRSA infections occur in people who've been in hospitals or other health care settings, such as nursing homes and dialysis centers. When it occurs in these settings, it's known as health care-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA). HA-MRSA infections typically are associated with invasive procedures or devices, such as surgeries, intravenous tubing or artificial joints.Another type of MRSA infection has occurred in the wider community — among healthy people. This form, community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA), often begins as a painful skin boil. It's spread by skin-to-skin contact. At-risk populations include groups such as high school wrestlers, child care workers and people who live in crowded conditions.MRSA infections can resist the effects of many common antibiotics, so they are more difficult to treat. This can allow the infections to spread and sometimes become life-threatening.MRSA infections may affect your:BloodstreamLungsHeartBonesJointsChronic MRSA periprosthetic total knee sepsis. Courtesy of Richard P. Evans, MD
10 Claire was just 23 and expecting her first baby, Thomas Claire was just 23 and expecting her first baby, Thomas. She was involved in a car accident when returning from a prenatal appointment. An emergency caesarean was performed at the scene, sadly Thomas died. Claire was treated for a broken arm and pelvis but contracted MRSA.Six weeks later she passed away, devastating her family. Her parents lost two generations, one through the contraction of an avoidable infection.
11 Sammie was diagnosed with auto- immune liver disease when she was 11, but she was healthy and lived a normal life. She was studying photography at college and loved chatting to pals. On April 3, 2008, she was feeling poorly after a virus so her mum took her to hospital. Blood tests showed she had an imbalance which needed treatment. They took a bone marrow sample from her hip and started chemotherapy. The first two wards Sammie was in were filthy. There were sticky patches on the floors and instead of changing the bedding properly, the nurses just took the bottom bed sheet, put it on top and then put a new one underneath. Her mum found dried blood stains on the sheet covering her. Sammie's mum mentioned the problems to a nurse, but Sammie asked her mum not to complain as she was worried something would be said to her when she was on her own.A wound on her hip where they'd done a bone marrow test had swollen up and Sammie's mum was told she had MRSA on May 1.She died on May 9 aged just 17
12 More about MRSACausesDifferent varieties of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, commonly called "staph," exist.Antibiotic resistanceMRSA is the result of decades of often unnecessary antibiotic use.Staph bacteria are normally found on the skin or in the nose of about one-third of the population. The bacteria are generally harmless unless they enter the body through a cut or other wound, and even then they usually cause only minor skin problems in healthy people.According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, less than 2 percent of the population carries the type of staph bacteria known as MRFor years, antibiotics have been prescribed for colds, flu and other viral infections that don't respond to these drugs. Even when antibiotics are used appropriately, they contribute to the rise of drug-resistant bacteria because they don't destroy every germ they target. Bacteria live on an evolutionary fast track, so germs that survive treatment with one antibiotic soon learn to resist others.
14 SymptomsStaph skin infections, including MRSA, generally start as small red bumps that resemble pimples, boils or spider bites. These can quickly turn into deep, painful abscesses that require surgical draining. Sometimes the bacteria remain confined to the skin. But they can also burrow deep into the body, causing potentially life- threatening infections in bones, joints, surgical wounds, the bloodstream, heart valves and lungs.
15 October 2 is World Mrsa day Recent reports have found nearly19,000 MRSA deathsin a single year.
16 Prevent mrsaWash your hands. Careful hand-washing remains your best defense against germs. Scrub hands briskly for at least 15 seconds, then dry them with a disposable towel and use another towel to turn off the faucet. Carry a small bottle of hand sanitizer containing at least 62 percent alcohol for times when you don't have access to soap and water.Keep wounds covered. Keep cuts and abrasions clean and covered with sterile, dry bandages until they heal. The pus from infected sores may contain MRSA, and keeping wounds covered will help keep the bacteria from spreading.Keep personal items personal. Avoid sharing personal items such as towels, sheets, razors, clothing and athletic equipment. MRSA spreads on contaminated objects as well as through direct contact.Shower after athletic games or practices. Shower immediately after each game or practice. Use soap and water. Don't share towels.Sanitize linens. If you have a cut or sore, wash towels and bed linens in a washing machine set to the hottest water setting (with added bleach, if possible) and dry them in a hot dryer. Wash gym and athletic clothes after each wearing.In the hospital, people who are infected or colonized with MRSA often are placed in isolation as a precaution to prevent the spread of MRSA. Visitors and health care workers caring for people in isolation may be required to wear protective garments and must follow strict hand hygiene procedures. Contaminated surfaces and laundry items should be properly disinfected.
17 C-DifficleClostridium difficile (pronunciation below) (from the Greek kloster (κλωστήρ), 'spindle', and Latin difficile, 'difficult, obstinate'), also known as "CDF/cdf", or "C. diff", is a species of Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium that is best known for causing antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). While it can be a minor normal component of colonic flora, the bacterium is thought to cause disease when competing bacteria in the gut have been wiped out by antibiotic treatment. In severe cases, C. difficile can cause "pseudomembranous colitis," a severe inflammation of the colon.C. difficile infection is a growing problem in inpatient healthcare facilities. Outbreaks occur when patients accidentally ingest spores of the bacteria while they are patients in a hospital (where 14,000 people a year in America alone die as a result), nursing home, or similar facility. When the bacteria are in a colon in which the normal gut flora has been destroyed (usually after a broad-spectrum antibiotic such as clindamycin has been used), the gut becomes overrun with C. difficile. This overpopulation is harmful because the bacteria release toxins that can cause bloating and diarrhea, with abdominal pain, which may become severe. C. difficile infections are the most common cause of pseudo-membranous colitis, and in rare cases this can progress to toxic megacolon, which can be life-threatening.Latent symptoms of C. difficile infection often mimic some flu-like symptoms and can mimic disease flare in patients with inflammatory bowel disease-associated colitis. Mild cases of C. difficile infection can often be cured by discontinuing the antibiotics responsible. In more serious cases, oral administration of, first, oral metronidazole and—if that fails—then, second, vancomycin and if unsuccessful again, intravenous metronidazole can be used. Relapses of C. difficile AAD have been reported in up to 20% of cases.
18 Clostridium difficile (Alias C. difficile or C. diff) The average human digestive tract is home to as many as 1,000 species of microorganisms that add up to over a trillion present at any given time…our GUT FLORAMost of them are harmless -- or even helpful –under normal circumstancesBUT….
19 When the balance is upset But when something upsets the balance of these organisms in your gut, otherwise harmless bacteria can grow out of control and make you sick. One of the worst offenders is a bacterium called Clostridium difficile (C. difficile, or C. diff). As the bacteria overgrow they release toxins that attack the lining of the intestines, causing a condition called Clostridium difficile colitis.Though relatively rare compared to other intestinal bacteria, C. diff is one of the most important causes of infectious diarrhea in the U.S.
20 symptoms Watery diarrhea, up to 15 times each day Severe abdominal painLoss of appetiteFeverBlood or pus in the stoolWeight loss
22 Hepatitis BHepatitis is inflammation of the liver. It can be caused by toxins, drugs, disease, heavy alcohol use, and bacterial and viral infections.Hepatitis B is caused by a virus. It is spread by certainkinds of contact.Vertical Transmission…mother- to -child transmissionWhat is hepatitis?“Hepatitis” means inflammation of the liver. Toxins, certain drugs, some diseases, heavy alcohol use, and bacterial and viral infections can all cause hepatitis. Hepatitis is also the name of a family of viral infections that affect the liver; the most common types are Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C.Can Hepatitis B be spread through sex?Yes. Among adults in the United States, Hepatitis B is most commonly spread through sexual contact and accounts for nearly two-thirds of acute Hepatitis B cases. In fact, Hepatitis B is 50–100 times more infectious than HIV and can be passed through the exchange of body fluids, such as semen, vaginal fluids, and blood.
23 It is a ‘hardy’ virusThe Hepatitis B virus can live 7 days outside of the body or its ‘reservoir’.
24 Hepatitis C Cirrhotic liver Healthy liver Caused by the Hepatitis C virus.Spread primarily through blood products containing the virus.Cirrhotic liverHealthy liverTransmission of HCV occurs via direct blood-to-blood contact. Risk factors to date are injection drug use, blood transfusions, accidental needlestick injuries, and other parental exposures, including nosocomial transmissions [5-8]. In the case of tattooing, piercing, acupuncture, and medical interventions, application of insufficient sterilized instruments can lead to transmission of the virus. The probability that HCV infections are attributed to sexual intercourse with HCV-positive partners is quiet low. Vertical transmission from mother to child prior to or during birth occurs in ≤4% of cases .Hepatitis C is a liver disease that results from infection with the Hepatitis C virus. It can range in severity from a mild illness lasting a few weeks to a serious, lifelong illness. Hepatitis C is usually spread when blood from a person infected with the Hepatitis C virus enters the body of someone who is not infected. Today, most people become infected with the Hepatitis C virus by sharing needles or other equipment to inject drugs. Before 1992, when widespread screening of the blood supply began in the United States, Hepatitis C was also commonly spread through blood transfusions and organ transplants.Hepatitis C can be either “acute” or “chronic.” Acute Hepatitis C virus infection is a short-term illness that occurs within the first 6 months after someone is exposed to the Hepatitis C virus. For most people, acute infection leads to chronic infection. Chronic Hepatitis C is a serious disease than can result in long-term health problems, or even death.There is no vaccine for Hepatitis C. The best way to prevent Hepatitis C is by avoiding behaviors that can spread the disease, especially injection drug use.No vaccine available.
25 AIDSAIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is the final stage of HIV disease, which causes severe damage to the immune system.CausesAIDS is the sixth leading cause of death among people ages in the United States, down from number one in Millions of people around the world are living with HIV/AIDS, including many children under age 15.Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes AIDS. The virus attacks the immune system and leaves the body vulnerable to a variety of life-threatening infections (Opportunistic Infections) and cancers.Common bacteria, yeast, parasites, and viruses that usually do not cause serious disease in people with healthy immune systems can cause fatal illnesses in people with AIDS.HIV has been found in saliva, tears, nervous system tissue and spinal fluid, blood, semen (including pre-seminal fluid, which is the liquid that comes out before ejaculation), vaginal fluid, and breast milk. However, only blood, semen, vaginal secretions, and breast milk have been shown to transmit infection to others.The virus can be spread (transmitted):Through sexual contact -- including oral, vaginal, and anal sexThrough blood -- via blood transfusions (now extremely rare in the U.S.) or needle sharingFrom mother to child -- a pregnant woman can transmit the virus to her fetus through their shared blood circulation, or a nursing mother can transmit it to her baby in her breast milkOther methods of spreading the virus are rare and include accidental needle injury, artificial insemination with infected donated semen, and organ transplantation with infected organs.
27 InfluenzaInfluenza (the flu) is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses. It can cause mild to severe illness. Serious outcomes of flu infection can result in hospitalization or death. Some people, such as older people, young children, and people with certain health conditions, are at high risk for serious flu complications. The best way to prevent the flu is by getting vaccinated each year.The upcoming season's flu vaccine will protect against the influenza viruses that research indicates will be most common during the season. This includes an influenza A (H1N1) virus, an influenza A (H3N2) virus, and one or two influenza B viruses, depending on the flu vaccine.The Flu Is ContagiousMost healthy adults may be able to infect other people beginning 1 day before symptoms develop and up to 5 to 7 days after becoming sick. Children may pass the virus for longer than 7 days. Symptoms start 1 to 4 days after the virus enters the body. That means that you may be able to pass on the flu to someone else before you know you are sick, as well as while you are sick. Some people can be infected with the flu virus but have no symptoms. During this time, those persons may still spread the virus to others.CDC Flu on TwitterGet updatesSubscribe to RSSListen to audio/Podcast
28 cough zombiePeople with flu can spread it to others up to about 6 feet away. Most experts think that flu viruses are spread mainly by droplets made when people with flu cough, sneeze or talk. These droplets can land in the mouths or noses of people who are nearby or possibly be inhaled into the lungs. Less often, a person might also get flu by touching a surface or object that has flu virus on it and then touching their own mouth or nose.Person to PersonPeople with flu can spread it to others up to about 6 feet away. Most experts think that flu viruses are spread mainly by droplets made when people with flu cough, sneeze or talk. These droplets can land in the mouths or noses of people who are nearby or possibly be inhaled into the lungs. Less often, a person might also get flu by touching a surface or object that has flu virus on it and then touching their own mouth or nose.To avoid this, people should stay away from sick people and stay home if sick. It also is important to wash hands often with soap and water. If soap and water are not available, use an alcohol-based hand rub. Linens, eating utensils, and dishes belonging to those who are sick should not be shared without washing thoroughly first. Eating utensils can be washed either in a dishwasher or by hand with water and soap and do not need to be cleaned separately. Further, frequently touched surfaces should be cleaned and disinfected at home, work and school, especially if someone is ill.The Flu Is ContagiousMost healthy adults may be able to infect other people beginning 1 day before symptoms develop and up to 5 to 7 days after becoming sick. Children may pass the virus for longer than 7 days. Symptoms start 1 to 4 days after the virus enters the body. That means that you may be able to pass on the flu to someone else before you know you are sick, as well as while you are sick. Some people can be infected with the flu virus but have no symptoms. During this time, those persons may still spread the virus to others.
29 StaphMain Staphylococcus aureus infectionsTypeExamplesLocalized skin infectionsStye and other small, superficial abscesses in sweat or sebaceous glandsSubcutaneous abscesses (boils) around foreign bodiesLarge, deep, infections (carbuncles) possibly causing bacteremiaDiffuse skin infectionImpetigoDeep, localized infectionsAcute and chronic osteomyelitisSeptic arthritisOther infectionsAcute infective endocarditisSepticemiaNecrotizing pneumoniaToxic shock syndromeGastroenteritisScalded skin syndromeStaph infections are caused by staphylococcus bacteria, a type of germ commonly found on the skin or in the nose of even healthy individuals.Staph infections are caused by staphylococcus bacteria, a type of germ commonly found on the skin or in the nose of even healthy individuals. Most of the time, these bacteria cause no problems or result in relatively minor skin infections.But staph infections can turn deadly if the bacteria invade deeper into your body, entering your bloodstream, joints, bones, lungs or heart.In the past, a lethal staph infection might have occurred in a person who was hospitalized or had a chronic illness or weakened immune system. Now, a growing number of otherwise healthy people are developing life-threatening staph infections. And many staph infections no longer respond to commonMost of the time, these bacteria cause no problems or result in relatively minor skin infections.
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