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And Control.  Aseptic technique  Opportunistic infections  Bloodborne pathogen  Anaerobic microorganism  Nosocomial infection  Biohazard container.

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Presentation on theme: "And Control.  Aseptic technique  Opportunistic infections  Bloodborne pathogen  Anaerobic microorganism  Nosocomial infection  Biohazard container."— Presentation transcript:

1 And Control

2  Aseptic technique  Opportunistic infections  Bloodborne pathogen  Anaerobic microorganism  Nosocomial infection  Biohazard container  Vertical transmission





7 Any Agent causing disease. Usually a living microorganism. Capable of producing infection.

8  Hand washing  Knowing the Chain of Infection  Vaccines  Avoiding overuse of antibiotics

9  Definition  Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is caused by a strain of staph bacteria that's become resistant to the antibiotics commonly used to treat ordinary staph infections.  Most MRSA infections occur in people who've been in hospitals or other health care settings, such as nursing homes and dialysis centers. When it occurs in these settings, it's known as health care-associated MRSA (HA- MRSA). HA-MRSA infections typically are associated with invasive procedures or devices, such as surgeries, intravenous tubing or artificial joints.  Another type of MRSA infection has occurred in the wider community — among healthy people. This form, community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA), often begins as a painful skin boil. It's spread by skin-to-skin contact. At- risk populations include groups such as high school wrestlers, child care workers and people who live in crowded conditions. Chronic MRSA periprosthetic total knee sepsis. Courtesy of Richard P. Evans, MD

10 Claire was just 23 and expecting her first baby, Thomas. She was involved in a car accident when returning from a prenatal appointment. An emergency caesarean was performed at the scene, sadly Thomas died. Claire was treated for a broken arm and pelvis but contracted MRSA. Six weeks later she passed away, devastating her family. Her parents lost two generations, one through the contraction of an avoidable infection.

11 Sammie was diagnosed with auto- immune liver disease when she was 11, but she was healthy and lived a normal life. She was studying photography at college and loved chatting to pals. On April 3, 2008, she was feeling poorly after a virus so her mum took her to hospital. Blood tests showed she had an imbalance which needed treatment. They took a bone marrow sample from her hip and started chemotherapy. The first two wards Sammie was in were filthy. There were sticky patches on the floors and instead of changing the bedding properly, the nurses just took the bottom bed sheet, put it on top and then put a new one underneath. Her mum found dried blood stains on the sheet covering her. Sammie's mum mentioned the problems to a nurse, but Sammie asked her mum not to complain as she was worried something would be said to her when she was on her own. A wound on her hip where they'd done a bone marrow test had swollen up and Sammie's mum was told she had MRSA on May 1. She died on May 9 aged just 17

12 Causes Different varieties of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, commonly called "staph," exist. Antibiotic resistance MRSA is the result of decades of often unnecessary antibiotic use.


14  Symptoms  Staph skin infections, including MRSA, generally start as small red bumps that resemble pimples, boils or spider bites. These can quickly turn into deep, painful abscesses that require surgical draining. Sometimes the bacteria remain confined to the skin. But they can also burrow deep into the body, causing potentially life- threatening infections in bones, joints, surgical wounds, the bloodstream, heart valves and lungs.

15 Recent reports have found nearly 19,000 MRSA deaths in a single year.

16  Wash your hands. Careful hand-washing remains your best defense against germs. Scrub hands briskly for at least 15 seconds, then dry them with a disposable towel and use another towel to turn off the faucet. Carry a small bottle of hand sanitizer containing at least 62 percent alcohol for times when you don't have access to soap and water.  Keep wounds covered. Keep cuts and abrasions clean and covered with sterile, dry bandages until they heal. The pus from infected sores may contain MRSA, and keeping wounds covered will help keep the bacteria from spreading.  Keep personal items personal. Avoid sharing personal items such as towels, sheets, razors, clothing and athletic equipment. MRSA spreads on contaminated objects as well as through direct contact.  Shower after athletic games or practices. Shower immediately after each game or practice. Use soap and water. Don't share towels.  Sanitize linens. If you have a cut or sore, wash towels and bed linens in a washing machine set to the hottest water setting (with added bleach, if possible) and dry them in a hot dryer. Wash gym and athletic clothes after each wearing.


18  The average human digestive tract is home to as many as 1,000 species of microorganisms that add up to over a trillion present at any given time  …our GUT FLORA  Most of them are harmless -- or even helpful –  under normal circumstances BUT….


20 Watery diarrhea, up to 15 times each day Severe abdominal pain Loss of appetite Fever Blood or pus in the stool Weight loss


22 Can Hepatitis B be spread through sex? Yes. Among adults in the United States, Hepatitis B is most commonly spread through sexual contact and accounts for nearly two-thirds of acute Hepatitis B cases. In fact, Hepatitis B is 50–100 times more infectious than HIV and can be passed through the exchange of body fluids, such as semen, vaginal fluids, and blood. Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver. It can be caused by toxins, drugs, disease, heavy alcohol use, and bacterial and viral infections. Hepatitis B is caused by a virus. It is spread by certain kinds of contact.

23 The Hepatitis B virus can live 7 days outside of the body or its ‘reservoir’.

24 Cirrhotic liverHealthy liver Caused by the Hepatitis C virus. Spread primarily through blood products containing the virus. No vaccine available.

25  AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is the final stage of HIV disease, which causes severe damage to the immune system.HIV disease  Causes  AIDS is the sixth leading cause of death among people ages in the United States, down from number one in Millions of people around the world are living with HIV/AIDS, including many children under age 15.  Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes AIDS. The virus attacks the immune system and leaves the body vulnerable to a variety of life-threatening infections (Opportunistic Infections) and cancers.(Opportunistic Infections  Common bacteria, yeast, parasites, and viruses that usually do not cause serious disease in people with healthy immune systems can cause fatal illnesses in people with AIDS.  HIV has been found in saliva, tears, nervous system tissue and spinal fluid, blood, semen (including pre-seminal fluid, which is the liquid that comes out before ejaculation), vaginal fluid, and breast milk. However, only blood, semen, vaginal secretions, and breast milk have been shown to transmit infection to others.  The virus can be spread (transmitted):  Through sexual contact -- including oral, vaginal, and anal sex  Through blood -- via blood transfusions (now extremely rare in the U.S.) or needle sharing  From mother to child -- a pregnant woman can transmit the virus to her fetus through their shared blood circulation, or a nursing mother can transmit it to her baby in her breast milk  Other methods of spreading the virus are rare and include accidental needle injury, artificial insemination with infected donated semen, and organ transplantation with infected organs.

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27 Influenza (the flu) is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses. It can cause mild to severe illness. Serious outcomes of flu infection can result in hospitalization or death. Some people, such as older people, young children, and people with certain health conditions, are at high risk for serious flu complications. The best way to prevent the flu is by getting vaccinated each year.influenza virusescertain health conditions The upcoming season's flu vaccine will protect against the influenza viruses that research indicates will be most common during the season. This includes an influenza A (H1N1) virus, an influenza A (H3N2) virus, and one or two influenza B viruses, depending on the flu vaccine.upcoming season's

28 People with flu can spread it to others up to about 6 feet away. Most experts think that flu viruses are spread mainly by droplets made when people with flu cough, sneeze or talk. These droplets can land in the mouths or noses of people who are nearby or possibly be inhaled into the lungs. Less often, a person might also get flu by touching a surface or object that has flu virus on it and then touching their own mouth or nose.

29 Main Staphylococcus aureus infections TypeExamples Localized skin infections Stye and other small, superficial abscesses in sweat or sebaceous glands Styeabscessessweatsebaceous glands Subcutaneous abscesses (boils) around foreign bodiesboilsforeign bodies Large, deep, infections (carbuncles) possibly causing bacteremiacarbuncles bacteremia Diffuse skin infection Impetigo Deep, localized infections Acute and chronic osteomyelitis osteomyelitis Septic arthritis Other infections Acute infective endocarditis Septicemia Necrotizing pneumonia Toxic shock syndrome Gastroenteritis Scalded skin syndrome Staph infections are caused by staphylococcus bacteria, a type of germ commonly found on the skin or in the nose of even healthy individuals. Most of the time, these bacteria cause no problems or result in relatively minor skin infections.




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