Presentation on theme: "How did this dangerous bacterial strain evolve?"— Presentation transcript:
1How did this dangerous bacterial strain evolve? Chapter 9Question 6:Last semester, several students at CCRI were hospitalized with potentially life-threatening MRSA infections.What is MRSA?How did this dangerous bacterial strain evolve?Explain.Carl Tuoni Beth MillerSilvio Penta
2What is MRSA and its Signs and Symptoms Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is caused by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, often called "staph.”Staph or MRSA infections usually start as small red bumps that resemble pimples, boils or spider bites. These can swiftly turn into deep, sore abscesses that require surgical draining. Sometimes the bacteria remain restricted to the skin. But they can also burrow deep into the body, causing potentially life-threatening infections in bones, joints, surgical wounds, the bloodstream, heart valves and lungs.
3Photo courtesy: The Mayo Clinic Staph skin infections often start out as small red bumps (right) and then turn into deep abscesses (left.)Photo courtesy: The Mayo Clinic
5In 2005, according to CDC reports more people died from MRSA than AIDS In 2005, according to CDC reports more people died from MRSA than AIDS. Most of these infections were contracted in a healthcare setting.
6CausesMSRA is the result of decades of excessive and unnecessary antibiotic useAntibiotics that have been prescribed for colds, flu, and other viral infections that do not respond to these drugsAntibiotics found in food and water, antibiotics can be found in beef, pigs and chickensEven antibiotics that are used correctly they can contribute to the rise of drug-resistant bacteria
7Some Common Examples:1) You have a sore throat and go to the dr. he gives you an antibiotic called Augmentin because it is strep throat. Even though the dr. told you to finish all of the medication, you feel better and stop taking it after 5 days.2) You have a sore throat again, you have had strep before and still have about half of that bottle of Augmentin you did not finish last time. So you decide to take the other half. Only this time the medicine doesn’t work. You have created a strain of strep at least in your own body, which can no longer be fought with Augmentin. Had you finished the medicine the first time not only would you not have gotten it again so soon, but if you did get it agian the Augmentin would have worked again.
8Discovery, History & Evolution First identified in 1961 in the UK, MRSA was referred to in the press as “the superbug” because it resisted the broad spectrum of beta lactin (a natural antibiotic produced by fungi) derived antibiotics.Through the process of natural selection, the more resistant mutants of the species became more prevalent, as the drug vulnerable strain died.There is no question that MRSA evolved in the hospital setting. No one knows for sure how MRSA evolved into the community known as CA-MRSA. It did not however derive from the hospital strain. The theory that makes the most sense is that due to the over use of antibiotics, a stronger, more resistant bacteria evolved.
9One Third of the population are carrying the infection Normally found on the skin or in the nose of around one third of the populationPeople carrying staph are said to be colonized but not infected with MRSAHealthy people can be colonized with MRSA and have no ill effects, however they can pass the germ to others
10Staph is generally harmless Staph bacteria are generally harmless unless they enter the body through a cutOnly causes minor skin problems in healthy peopleStaph infection may cause serious illness in older adults, or people who are ill, or have weakened immune systems
11The “Super-bug Hype”As serious as MRSA is, it has been around for a long time, look at the graph below and you will see that the incidence of the infection has not gone up much from 2001, yet from it was in the news much more than earlier in the decade.
12Risk factors for (HA) MRSA Include Because hospital and community strains of MRSA generally occur in different settings the risk factors for the two strains differRisk factors for (HA) MRSA IncludeCurrent or recent hospitalization- MRSA is a concern among hospitals where it can attack those most vulnerableResiding in a long term care facility- MRSA is far more prevalent in these facilities than in hospitalsInvasive devices- People who are on dialysis, are catheterized, have feeding tubes, or other invasive devices are at a higher riskRecent antibiotic use
13Risk factors for community acquired (CA) MRSA Young Age- CA-MRSA can be particularly dangerous in children often entering the body through a cut or a scrape. Their immune system may not be fully developedParticipating in contact sports- the bacteria spread easily through cuts and abrasions and skin to skin contact.Sharing towels or athletic equipment- CA-MRSA has spread among athletes sharing razors, towels, uniforms, or equipment
14Having a weakened immune system- People with a weakened immune system are more likely to have severe CA-MRSA infectionsLiving in crowded or unsanitary conditions- Outbreaks of CA-MRSA have occurred in military training camps and in prisonsAssociation with health care workers- People who are in close contact with health care workers are at serious risk of infections.
15Prevention is the Best Medicine Avoid contact with the wounds or bandages of othersKeep personal items personal . Avoid sharing towels, razors, clothing, and athletic equipmentKeep wounds covered. Keep cuts and abrasions clean and covered with sterile dry bandages until they healShower after athletic games or practicesSanitize linens if you have a cut or sore wash towels and bed linens in a washing machine using hot water. Wash gym and athletic clothes after each wearing