Objectives 1. Describe basic management principles 2. Describe the concepts of span of control and unity of command 3. Describe characteristics of some of the leading management theories 4. Compare and contrast leadership and management
Introduction – What does it mean to be a good manager? Good managers impact others in positive ways. Good managers are a valuable resource in our personal and professional lives. (Your response) ___________________________________________
Four Management Principles (or Functions) 1.Planning Determine Goals How goals will be achieved Decision making
Four Management Principles (or Functions) Cont. 2. Organizing Reflect on plans and objectives Establish major tasks Divide major tasks into subtasks Allocate resources Evaluate the results of your strategy
Four Management Principles (or Functions) Cont. 3. Influencing Achieve the organization’s goal by motivating, directing, or leading Effective communication
Four Management Principles (or Functions) Cont. 4. Controlling Making things happen as planned Monitor the progress being made by your workers Gathering information and measuring performance
Span of Control and Unity of Command Span of Control Number of individuals a manager supervises Span of Control and Span of Management are the same term Unity of Command Individual should have one boss Too many bosses cause inefficiencies and ineffectiveness
Management Theories The Classical Approach Scientific Management Classical Organization Theory The Behavioral Approach Increase production by understanding the people Hawthorne Studies Theory X and Theory Y Theory X – lazy, lacks initiative, dislikes work Theory Y – full of initiative, self-directed and committed to the organization Involves expectations and assumptions about people Management by Objectives Manager and subordinate set goals with understanding that subordinate’s job performance would be judged by achieving goals – Peter Drucker
Leadership vs. Management Leadership Guiding the behavior of others Directs people to accomplish objectives Management Concerned with more than just people such as all the other resources available to them Broader scope than leading Effective managers are probably good leaders
Exercise Baseball Team Who’s Who: Divide into teams with 3-6 members Select a group leader for each group Using the clues provided, try to determine who plays each position on a baseball team Solve the problem and analyze how your group leader led you through the process and how the group interacted during the decision making
Summary I. The four principles of management are: Planning – Determining the organization’s goals and deciding how best to achieve them. Organizing – Assigning tasks to various individuals or groups; puts plan into action. Influencing – Guiding the activities of the organization’s members. Controlling – Making things happen as planned and monitoring the progress made by your workers. II. Span of Control refers to the number of individuals a manager supervises. Unity of Command means that an individual should only have one boss.
Summary (cont.) III. Management theories include: The Classical Approach which identifies planning, organizing, leading and controlling as important managerial concepts The Behavioral Approach which strives to increase production by understanding the people Theory X and Theory Y which involved the positive or negative assumptions a manager would make about people Management by Objectives which involved manager and subordinate setting goals that would influence the job performance evaluation of the subordinate IV. The distinction between leadership and management is that leadership is guiding the behavior of others and management is concerned with more than just people (all resources must come together to accomplish the goal).