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1 Baseball Accelerated Geoscience Final Exam Review.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Baseball Accelerated Geoscience Final Exam Review."— Presentation transcript:


2 1 Baseball Accelerated Geoscience Final Exam Review

3 2 What are 4 characteristics that all minerals share? Answer: –4 of the following: –Definite chem composition –Occur naturally –Inorganic –Solid at room temp –Atoms orderly arrangement Name 5 tests that can be used for mineral ID Answer: 5 of the following: HardnessColor LusterStreak CleavageAcid SmellFeel MagnetismTaste

4 3 What mineral reacts with acid? Answer: –Calcite What mineral is the only one that is magnetic? Answer: –Magnetite

5 4 What mineral tastes like (is) salt? Answer: –Halite What mineral looks like gold? Answer: Iron Pyrite/fool’s gold

6 5 What is the hardness of your fingernail? Answer: –2.5 What is the hardness of the steel file? Answer: –6.5

7 6 Why is color not the best property for mineral ID? Answer: –There can be impurities and/or several minerals can have the same color Name the three types of rocks Answer: –Igneous, metamorphic, sedimentary

8 7 What three textures that igneous rocks can possess? Answer: –Course-grained, fine- grained, glassy Name two glassy igneous rocks Answer: –2 of the following: –Obsidian, scoria, pumice

9 8 What is the main igneous rock that you would find on an ocean plate? Answer: –Basalt What course- grained igneous rock makes up many mountains? Answer: –Granite

10 9 What are the three types of sedimentary rocks? Answer: –Clastic, organic, chemical Name two clastic sedimentary rocks. Answer: –Two of the following: –Conglomerate, sandstone, shale

11 10 How do chemical sedimentary rocks form? Answer: –From the evaporation of mineral-rich bodies of water What are the requirements for metamorphosis? Answer: –Heat and pressure

12 11 What is the hardest and most valuable form of coal? Answer: –anthracite What are the three categories of metamorphic rocks? Answer: –Banded, foliated, massive

13 12 What is the banded metamorphic rock and from what igneous rock was it formed? Answer: –Gneiss formed from granite Name two foliated metamorphic rocks and the rock from which they formed. Answer: –2 of the following –Slate (from shale) –Anthracite coal (from bituminous coal) –Schist (from slate)

14 13 What is the age of an igneous intrusion compared to the rock layers it intrudes? Answer: –It is younger According to the law of superposition, where would you find the youngest rock layers? Answer: –On/near the surface (top of sedimentary rock layers)

15 14 What type of rocks often contain fossils? Answer: –Sedimentary What are the characteristics of an index fossil? Answer: –Wide geographic distribution and existed for short time

16 15 What term is defined as the amount of time it takes for 50% of a radioisotope to decay? Answer: –Half-life What type of radioisotope would be used to date a fossil that is suspected to be about 10,000 years old Answer: –Carbon-14 or Carbon dating

17 16 How much of the radioactive parent material would exist after three half-lives Answer: –12.5% or 1/8 of the original amount What term is defined by “the present is the key to the past?” Answer: –Uniformitarianism

18 17 Name three of the four types of plate boundaries Answer: –3 of the following: –Collision –Subduction –Diverging –Sliding/transform What layer of the Earth has partially melted rocks and convection currents? Answer: –The asthenosphere

19 18 What type of volcano alternates between eruptions of ash and lava? Answer: –Composite Name the other two types of volcanoes. Answer: –Cinder cone and shield

20 19 What volcano produces primarily basaltic lava? Answer: –Shield What are two features found at diverging plate boundaries Answer: –Mid-ocean ridge –Rift valley

21 20 How did the Hawaiian Islands form? Answer: –The Pacific plate moved over a stationary hot spot; the island chain formed in a line as the movement progressed What are two features found at a subduction boundary? Answer: –2 of the following: –Deep sea trench, mountain building (volcanoes), earthquakes

22 21 Name three pieces of evidence used to support the idea that Pangea existed. Answer: –3 of following: –Puzzle fit of continents, unique rocks on S. American and African coasts, unique fossils on S. American and African coasts, mountain ranges continous from N. America and Europe, tropical plants in cold regions What type of fault results from compressional stress? Answer: –Reverse fault

23 22 What three types of waves are released by an earthquake? Answer: –S, P, and L waves What is the order of arrival time at seismograph station (speed)? Answer: –P, S, L

24 23 How much more intense is an earthquake with magnitude 8 vs. earthquake of magnitude 6? Answer: –100 times as great What happens to S- P lag time if the distance from an earthquake to the seismograph station increases Answer: –The lag time also increases

25 24 Name three types of mountains we studied. Answer: –3 of the following: –Fault block –Folded –Volcanic –Dome What is a contour interval Answer: –The amount of elevational change between contour lines

26 25 How can you identify a river on a topographic map (besides the name of the river!) Answer: –The contour lines point upstream in a “V” pattern What is a benchmark? Answer: –A marker in the ground indicating the exact elevation above sea level

27 26 How are hills shown on a topo map? Answer: –Concentric circles Name 3 examples of physical (mech.) weathering. Answer: –3 of the following: –Roots growing into rock –Ice wedging –Heating/cooling –Wave action –Wetting and drying –Exfoliation

28 27 What shape is a valley formed by a youthful river? Answer: –V-shaped What are moraines? Answer: –The general game for the accumulation of rock and soil materials deposited at the end or sides of glaciers

29 28 What type of lakes are often formed when a glacier retreats, but leaves a huge chunk of ice to melt? Answer: –Kettle lakes What is a meander and what could be formed if it continues to grow? Answer: –A meander is a bend in an old-age river, and eventually could form an oxbow lake

30 29 What type of front could produce short bursts of thunderstorms, hail, and tornadoes? Answer: –Cold front What large vertically forming thunderclouds are often associated with these storms? Answer: –Cumulonimbus clouds

31 30 What are five things that we studied that can be ascertained from a station model? Answer: –5 of the following: –Wind speed-Temp. –Wind direction-DewPt –Cloud cover –Pressure –Present/past precipitation –Cloud types –Others? What natural phenomenon results from the spinning of the Earth and influences air and ocean movement Answer: –Coriolis effect

32 31 What term describes the temperature at which relative humidity is 100%? Answer: –Dew point What two charactistics would exist for maritime tropical air masses? Answer: –Warm and moist

33 32 From what type of pressure center do weather fronts extend? Answer: –Low pressure center What symbols are found on the line for a cold front? Answer: –Triangles (blue)

34 33 What name is given to elongated, tear-shaped deposits of glacial till? Answer: –Drumlins What effect do large bodies of water have on temperature. Answer: –They have a moderating effect (warmer by water in winter, and cooler in summer)

35 34 What is the difference between climate and weather? Answer: –Climate involves long-term patterns of an area, while weather refers to the specific conditions that are occurring at a particular place at a particular time What two days of the year have the most and least hours of sunlight (N. hemisphere)? Answer: –June 21 most, December 21 least

36 35 What type of storm produces the world’s strongest winds? Answer: –Tornadoes What part of the planet experiences the largest extremes of temperature and daylight? Answer: –The north and south pole

37 36 What phenomenon results from altered ocean currents in the southern Pacific Ocean? Answer: –El Nino Why does it tend to rain more on the windward side of a mountain? Answer: –Moist air cools as it rises to go over the mountain; as it cools the precipitation falls

38 37 What is the specific heat capacity of a substance? Answer: –The resistance by an object to a change in temperature Where in a thunderstorm do tornadoes often occur? Answer: –At the back of the storm

39 38 Name 4 of earth’s biomes Answer: –4 of the following: –Grasslands –Tropical rainforest –Taiga –Temperate/deciduous forest –Desert –Arctic tundra Which of the biomes at the left do we live in? Answer: –Deciduous forest

40 39 Answer:

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