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Warm-Up: Describe the texture and composition of each igneous rock. A B.

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Presentation on theme: "Warm-Up: Describe the texture and composition of each igneous rock. A B."— Presentation transcript:


2 Warm-Up: Describe the texture and composition of each igneous rock. A B

3 Definition of A Rock A naturally occurring, solid, mixture of one or more minerals or organic matter Classified into 3 groups based on how they are formed: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic Texture and composition give clues as to how rocks are formed, and are used to classify and identify rocks Rocks are always changing form in a cycle called the Rock Cycle Rocks Rock!

4 Rock Classification Composition – the type of minerals a rock contains (ex: Limestone is 95% Calcite and 5% Aragonite) Texture – the size, shape and arrangement of the minerals that make up a rock. Can be fine, medium, or coarse.

5 The Rock Cycle  The main idea of the rock cycle is that rocks are continually changing from one type to another and back again  The elements that make up a rock are never created or destroyed - instead, they are constantly being recycled.



8 Igneous Rock  Form when magma cools and hardens.  Sometimes look shiny and glasslike if lava cools quickly  Sometimes have tiny holes and spaces if gas is trapped in the rock as it cools  Two examples are: Basalt and Obsidian

9 Igneous Rocks Extrusive rocks- formed by cooling lava Texture Can Be: glassy porous fine-grained Intrusive rocks- formed by cooling magma Texture Is Always: coarse-grained

10 Formation of Extrusive Igneous Rock


12 Igneous Features and Landforms

13 Extrusive Igneous Rock

14 Formation of Intrusive Igneous Rock

15 Intrusive Igneous Rock Yosemite N.P.

16 Examples of Textures: Pumice Porous Texture Basalt Obsidian Course Grained Texture Granite Porous Texture

17 Sedimentary Rock  Formed from particles called sediments  Fairly soft and break easily  Contain sand, pebbles, stones, and is the only rock to contain fossils  Examples are: Conglomerate and Limestone  Form at or near Earth’s surface  Most have layers or strata

18 Sedimentary Rocks Formed by: Weathering (breaking down of rock) Erosion (movement of sediments) Deposition (collection of sediments) Compaction & Cementation (sediments bonding together)

19 Two Types of Weathering 1. Mechanical Weathering Root Action Frost Action Moss

20 Types of Weathering 2. Chemical Weathering: Oxidation (rust) – Oxygen in air reacts with metals in rocks Acidic rain water


22 Physical Weathering

23 Five Agents of Erosion Gravity (Mass wasting) Wind Running water Glaciers Waves

24 Gravity (Mass Wasting) Slumping Soil creep


26 Mass Movements: Five Main Types

27 Wind

28 Running Water Yellowstone Canyon & River Niagara Falls

29 Glaciers


31 Glacial Processes I

32 Waves Australia

33 Examples of Deposition Lateral moraine Cape Cod (spit) Nile River Delta

34 Compaction & Cementation

35 Sedimentary Rocks (categorized by composition) Clastic Rocks (rock fragments) Conglomerates (pebbles) Sandstones (sand) Shales (mud & clay) Organic Rocks (once living) Ex: limestone(coral and shells), coal (plants) Chemical Rocks (evaporation) Ex: rock salt, limestone, geodes, gypsum

36 Clastic Sedimentary Rock… Conglomerate Shale Sandstone

37 Organic Sedimentary Rocks… Coal (plant mateiral) Limestone (shell & coral)

38 Chemical Sedimentary Rocks… Limestone Gypsum rock Geode

39 Sedimentary rocks according to texture: Coarse-grained Conglomerate Shale Sandstone Fine-grained Medium-grained

40 Metamorphic Rock  Formed under the surface of the Earth due to extreme heat and pressure  Have ribbon-like layers and may have shiny crystals formed by minerals cooling slowly over time  Two examples are: Gneiss and Marble

41 Metamorphic Rocks Formed by tremendous heat & pressure, and chemical reactions inside the crust. Formed from all three rock types.

42 Formation of Metamorphic Rock

43 Types of Metamorphic Rock 1. Foliated - bands or layers Ex: schist, slate, gneiss Gneiss Slate

44 2. Unfoliated - no bands or layers Ex: marble and quartzite Types of Metamorphic Rock Quartzite

45 Unfoliated Texture

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