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Warm-Up: Describe the texture and composition of each igneous rock. A B.

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Presentation on theme: "Warm-Up: Describe the texture and composition of each igneous rock. A B."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Warm-Up: Describe the texture and composition of each igneous rock. A B

3 Definition of A Rock A naturally occurring, solid, mixture of one or more minerals or organic matter Classified into 3 groups based on how they are formed: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic Texture and composition give clues as to how rocks are formed, and are used to classify and identify rocks Rocks are always changing form in a cycle called the Rock Cycle Rocks Rock!

4 Rock Classification Composition – the type of minerals a rock contains (ex: Limestone is 95% Calcite and 5% Aragonite) Texture – the size, shape and arrangement of the minerals that make up a rock. Can be fine, medium, or coarse.

5 The Rock Cycle  The main idea of the rock cycle is that rocks are continually changing from one type to another and back again  The elements that make up a rock are never created or destroyed - instead, they are constantly being recycled.

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8 Igneous Rock  Form when magma cools and hardens.  Sometimes look shiny and glasslike if lava cools quickly  Sometimes have tiny holes and spaces if gas is trapped in the rock as it cools  Two examples are: Basalt and Obsidian

9 Igneous Rocks Extrusive rocks- formed by cooling lava Texture Can Be: glassy porous fine-grained Intrusive rocks- formed by cooling magma Texture Is Always: coarse-grained

10 Formation of Extrusive Igneous Rock

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12 Igneous Features and Landforms

13 Extrusive Igneous Rock

14 Formation of Intrusive Igneous Rock

15 Intrusive Igneous Rock Yosemite N.P.

16 Examples of Textures: Pumice Porous Texture Basalt Obsidian Course Grained Texture Granite Porous Texture

17 Sedimentary Rock  Formed from particles called sediments  Fairly soft and break easily  Contain sand, pebbles, stones, and is the only rock to contain fossils  Examples are: Conglomerate and Limestone  Form at or near Earth’s surface  Most have layers or strata

18 Sedimentary Rocks Formed by: Weathering (breaking down of rock) Erosion (movement of sediments) Deposition (collection of sediments) Compaction & Cementation (sediments bonding together)

19 Two Types of Weathering 1. Mechanical Weathering Root Action Frost Action Moss

20 Types of Weathering 2. Chemical Weathering: Oxidation (rust) – Oxygen in air reacts with metals in rocks Acidic rain water

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22 Physical Weathering

23 Five Agents of Erosion Gravity (Mass wasting) Wind Running water Glaciers Waves

24 Gravity (Mass Wasting) Slumping Soil creep

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26 Mass Movements: Five Main Types

27 Wind

28 Running Water Yellowstone Canyon & River Niagara Falls

29 Glaciers

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31 Glacial Processes I

32 Waves Australia

33 Examples of Deposition Lateral moraine Cape Cod (spit) Nile River Delta

34 Compaction & Cementation

35 Sedimentary Rocks (categorized by composition) Clastic Rocks (rock fragments) Conglomerates (pebbles) Sandstones (sand) Shales (mud & clay) Organic Rocks (once living) Ex: limestone(coral and shells), coal (plants) Chemical Rocks (evaporation) Ex: rock salt, limestone, geodes, gypsum

36 Clastic Sedimentary Rock… Conglomerate Shale Sandstone

37 Organic Sedimentary Rocks… Coal (plant mateiral) Limestone (shell & coral)

38 Chemical Sedimentary Rocks… Limestone Gypsum rock Geode

39 Sedimentary rocks according to texture: Coarse-grained Conglomerate Shale Sandstone Fine-grained Medium-grained

40 Metamorphic Rock  Formed under the surface of the Earth due to extreme heat and pressure  Have ribbon-like layers and may have shiny crystals formed by minerals cooling slowly over time  Two examples are: Gneiss and Marble

41 Metamorphic Rocks Formed by tremendous heat & pressure, and chemical reactions inside the crust. Formed from all three rock types.

42 Formation of Metamorphic Rock

43 Types of Metamorphic Rock 1. Foliated - bands or layers Ex: schist, slate, gneiss Gneiss Slate

44 2. Unfoliated - no bands or layers Ex: marble and quartzite Types of Metamorphic Rock Quartzite

45 Unfoliated Texture


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