17Sedimentary rocks are the second great rock class Sedimentary rocks are the second great rock class. Whereas igneous rocks are born hot, sedimentary rocks are born cool at the Earth's surface, mostly under water. They usually consist of layers or strata, hence they are also called stratified rocks.
18Identifying Sedimentary Rocks Small rocks, fragments and organic remains that have been moved by water, wind or other agents of erosion are called sediment.
19Sedimentary rocks are the result of the following processes: Mechanical weathering: a rock is broken down without changing its mineral make-up. Ex: waves, wind, running water, gravity
202. Chemical weathering: a rock is broken down by chemical reactions that change its mineral composition. Ex: oxidation (rusting) & acid rain
213. Erosion: the process where. weathered material (sediments) 3. Erosion: the process where weathered material (sediments) get carried away
224. Deposition: the process by. which sediments settle down 4. Deposition: the process by which sediments settle down in a NEW location
23Over time, sediment is compacted and cemented together.
24Sedimentary Rocks 1. Compaction Sediments are deposited, layer upon layer builds up.Pressure from the upper layers pushes down on the lower layers.If the sediments are small, they can stick together and form solid rock
25Sedimentary Rocks 2. Cementation If sediments are large, like sand and pebbles, pressure alone can’t make them stick together.Large sediments have to be cemented together.As water moves through soil and rock, it picks up dissolved minerals such as quartz and calcite. These minerals are deposited between the sediments.Upon solidifying, these minerals, acting as natural cements, hold the sediment together like glue, making clasticsedimentaryrock.
26Sedimentary Rocks Stacked Rocks Sedimentary rocks often form as layers. The older layers are usually on the bottom because they were deposited first.Stacked RocksLayered rock is also calledSometimes, forces within Earth overturn layers of rock, and the oldest are NO longer on the bottom.
27Sedimentary rocks account for 75% of the rocks exposed at the Earth’s surface Label theOldest layer?Youngest layer?intrusion
28There are Three Major Types of Sedimentary Rocks
29Sedimentary RocksClastic rock- sedimentary rock formed from rock fragments of other rocks (mentioned above)Clastic rocks have granular textures, much like sugar.They are named according to the shapes and size of the sediments that form them.
31ExamplesConglomerates: Conglomerate rocks are made of large rock pieces that have been cemented together. When looking at this rock type, you can easily see the parts that it has been made of. Pushing hard on single rock pieces in the conglomerate may result in these pieces being broken off of the rock.Sandstone: Sandstone rocks are made of fine sand grains. Like conglomerate, the grains of sand have been cemented together. Rubbing the surface of sandstone rocks may result in small grains of sand being rubbed off of the rock.Shale: Shale is made up of very fine grains of clay like particles. The texture of shale is very smooth to the touch. If you apply pressure to the shale, it is possible to break it into pieces that also have smooth textures.
322. Organic rocks sedimentary rocks formed from the life processes or remains of living organisms Fossil-rich Limestone, made from the mineral calcite, is formed from the shells of clams, mussels, corals and snails.Coal is made from plants that died in swamps millions of years ago.
33Organic Sedimentary Rocks If a rock is made completely of shell fragments that you can see, the rock is called coquina (koh KEE nuh).
343. Chemical RocksChemical sedimentary rocks formed when dissolved minerals come out of solution.Minerals collect when seas or lakes evaporate. The deposits of minerals that come out of solution form sediments and rocks.Chemical sedimentary rocks are NOT made from pieces of preexisting rocks.
35Halite is an example of a rock that formed when water evaporated and left behind minerals. Halite forms rock salt. Companies mine these deposits because rock salt is an important resource.Chemical limestone forms when calcite comes out of a solution in ocean water. Limestone can contain other minerals but must be at least 50% calcite
37Formation of Metamorphic Rocks Rocks that have changed because of changes in temperature and pressure or the presence of hot watery fluids are called metamorphic rocks.Metamorphic rocks can form from igneous, sedimentary, or other metamorphic rocks.Each type of metamorphic rock can come from several kinds of parent rocks.
38Heat and Pressure1. Rocks beneath Earth’s surface are under great pressure from rock layers above them.Temperature also increases with depth in the Earth.Depending upon the amount of heat & pressure applied, one type of rock can change into several different metamorphic rocks.
39Example of Metamorphic Transition Heat and PressureExample of Metamorphic Transition
40Heat and Pressure The sedimentary rock shale will change into slate. As increasing pressure and temperature are applied, the slate can change into phyllite, then schist, and eventually gneiss.SlatePhylliteSchistGneiss
41Heat and PressureSchist also can form when basalt is metamorphosed, or changed, and gneiss can come from granite.BasaltGraniteSchistGneiss
42Hot Fluids2. Hot Fluids, which are mostly water with dissolved elements and compounds, can react chemically with a rock and change its composition.This is what happens when rock surround a hot magma plume reacts w/ these fluidsMost fluids that transform rocks during metamorphic processes are hot and mainly are comprised of water and carbon dioxide.In the presence of hot, water-rich fluids, solid rock can change in mineral composition without having to melt.
43Classifying Metamorphic Rocks Metamorphic rocks can be classified according to composition and textureFoliated (texture)- when mineral grains line up in parallel layers (dark/light bands)Examples: gneiss (NISE) (parent rock granite) &slate (parent rock shale)Non-Foliated (texture)- when mineral grains grow and rearrange but do NOT form layersExamples: marble (parent rock limestone) &quartzite (parent rock sandstone)
44Development of foliation due to directed pressure (stress)
46The Rock CycleThe rock cycle is a continuous cycle and a dynamic process!The processes of melting, cooling, heat & pressure, weathering, erosion, deposition, compaction & cementation slowly change rock from one kind to another…the cycle NEVER ends!