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Chapter # 6 Major Ecosystems/Biomes of the World.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter # 6 Major Ecosystems/Biomes of the World."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter # 6 Major Ecosystems/Biomes of the World

2 Overview of Chapter 6 o Earth’s Major Biomes Tundra, Boreal Forests, Temperate Rainforest, Temperate Deciduous Forests, Grasslands, Chaparral, Deserts, Savanna, & Tropical Rainforests Tundra, Boreal Forests, Temperate Rainforest, Temperate Deciduous Forests, Grasslands, Chaparral, Deserts, Savanna, & Tropical Rainforests Vertical Zonation Vertical Zonation o Aquatic Ecosystems Freshwater ecosystems Freshwater ecosystems Estuaries Estuaries o Marine Ecosystems o Interaction of Life Zones and Humans

3 Earth’s Major Biomes o Biome A large, relatively distinct terrestrial region with a similar climate soil, plants, and animals, regardless of where it occurs in the world A large, relatively distinct terrestrial region with a similar climate soil, plants, and animals, regardless of where it occurs in the world Nine major biomes Nine major biomes o Location of each biome is primarily determined by: Temperature (varies with both latitude and elevation) Temperature (varies with both latitude and elevation) Precipitation Precipitation o Biomes can also be defined by Winds, rapid temperature changes, fires, floods, etc. Winds, rapid temperature changes, fires, floods, etc.

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7 Vertical Zonation o Increasing in elevation has similar effect on ecosystem as traveling to higher latitudes

8 Tundra o Treeless biome in the far north with harsh, cold winters and extremely short summers o Precipitation cm/yr cm/yr o Temperature Short growing season Short growing season days days

9 Tundra o Nutrient poor soils with little organic material Permafrost present Permafrost present o Low species richness Veg is mostly grasses and sedges Veg is mostly grasses and sedges Very simple food web Very simple food web o Low primary productivity

10 Boreal Forests o A region of coniferous forests in the northern hemisphere Just south of tundra Just south of tundra o Covers 11% of earth’s land land o Growing Season A little longer than A little longer than tundra tundra o Precipitation ~ 50 cm/yr ~ 50 cm/yr

11 Boreal Forests o Soils are acidic and mineral poor o Vegetation comprised of drought resistant conifers White spruce White spruce Balsam fir Balsam fir Eastern larch Eastern larch o Mostly small animals and migrating birds o Some large animals are present Wolves, bear, moose Wolves, bear, moose

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13 Temperate Rainforest o Coniferous biome with cool weather, dense fog and high precipitation Ex: Northwest US Ex: Northwest US o Precipitation > 127 cm/yr > 127 cm/yr Heaviest in winter Heaviest in winter o Temperature Winters are mild Winters are mild Summers are cool Summers are cool

14 Temperate Rainforest o Soils are nutrient-poor, but high in organic material (dropped needles) Cool temperatures slow decomposition Cool temperatures slow decomposition o Dominant Vegetation Large evergreen trees Large evergreen trees Old-growth forest Old-growth forest o Variety of cool climate animal life climate animal life o Very high species richness richness o Heavily logged

15 Temperature Deciduous Forests o Forest biome that occurs in temperate areas with a moderate amount of precipitation o Precipitation cm/yr cm/yr o Temperature Seasonality Seasonality Hot summers and cold winters Hot summers and cold winters

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17 Temperate Deciduous Forest o Topsoil is rich in organic material and underlain by clay o Vegetation is primarily deciduous Oak, maple, beech Oak, maple, beech o Animals Deer, bear and small animals Deer, bear and small animals o Most of this biome land area has been regenerated after farming & timber harvest

18 Grassland o Grasslands with hot summers, cold winters and too little precipitation to support trees o Precipitation cm/yr cm/yr o Tall grass prairies o Short grass prairies o 90% of this biome has been lost to farmland

19 Grassland o Soil has thick, organic material rich organic horizon. o Periodic fires keep the dominant vegetation grasses grasses o Animals Once covered with bison- no longer true Once covered with bison- no longer true Smaller animals are still present (ex: prairie dogs) Smaller animals are still present (ex: prairie dogs)

20 Chaparral o Also called a Mediterranean Climate Ex: Southern California Ex: Southern California Ex: Greece Ex: Greece o Temperature Mild, moist winters Mild, moist winters Hot, dry summers Hot, dry summers o Frequent fires

21 Chaparral o Soil is thin and often not fertile o Vegetation Dense growth of evergreen shrubs Dense growth of evergreen shrubs Lush during the growing season Lush during the growing season o Animals Mule deer, chipmunks, many species of birds Mule deer, chipmunks, many species of birds

22 Deserts o Biome where lack of precipitation limits plant growth o Temperature Can very greatly in 24-hr period, as well as yearly (based on location) Can very greatly in 24-hr period, as well as yearly (based on location) o Precipitation < 25 cm/yr < 25 cm/yr

23 Deserts o Soils low in nutrients, high in salts o Vegetation sparse cactus and sagebrush cactus and sagebrush o Animals are very small to regulate temperature Sonoran Desert

24 Savanna o Tropical grassland with widely scattered trees o Temperature Varies little throughout the year Varies little throughout the year o Precipitation Seasons regulated by precipitation, not temperature Seasons regulated by precipitation, not temperature cm/yr cm/yr

25 Savanna o Soil low in nutrients due to leaching o Vegetation Wide expanses of grass Wide expanses of grass Occasional Acacia trees Occasional Acacia trees Have fire adaptive characteristics Have fire adaptive characteristics o Animals Herds of hoofed animals Herds of hoofed animals Large predators- lions, hyenas, etc. Large predators- lions, hyenas, etc.

26 Tropical Rainforest o Lush, species-rich biome that occurs where climate is warm and moist throughout the year o Precipitation cm/yr cm/yr o Very productive biome o Most species-rich biome

27 Tropical Rainforest o Ancient, weathered, nutrient- poor soil Nutrients tied up in vegetation, not soil Nutrients tied up in vegetation, not soil o Vegetation 3 distinct canopy layers 3 distinct canopy layers o Animals Most abundant insect, reptiles and amphibians on earth Most abundant insect, reptiles and amphibians on earth

28 Aquatic Ecosystem o Fundamental Division Freshwater Freshwater Saltwater Saltwater o Aquatic Ecosystems also affected by Dissolved oxygen level, light penetration, pH, presence/absence of currents Dissolved oxygen level, light penetration, pH, presence/absence of currents o Three main ecological categories of organisms Plankton- free floating Plankton- free floating Nekton- strong swimming Nekton- strong swimming Benthos- bottom dwelling Benthos- bottom dwelling

29 Freshwater Ecosystems o Includes: Rivers and streams Rivers and streams Lakes and ponds Lakes and ponds Marshes and swamps Marshes and swamps o Represent 2% of earth’s surface o Assist in recycling water back to the oceans (Biogeochemical Cycling)

30 Rivers and Streams o Changes greatly from headwater to mouth o Headwaters Shallow, cool, swiftly flowing, high oxygenated Shallow, cool, swiftly flowing, high oxygenated o Mouth Not as cool, slower flowing, less oxygen in water Not as cool, slower flowing, less oxygen in water

31 Lakes and Ponds o Body of freshwater that does not flow o Three zones Littoral Littoral Limnetic Limnetic Profundal Profundal o Experience thermal stratification (depending on depth)

32 Lakes and Ponds o Littoral Zone - shallow water area along the shore o Limnetic Zone - open water beyond the littoral zone o Profundal Zone - beneath the limnetic zone of deep lakes

33 Thermal Stratification o Temperature changes sharply with depth o Thermocline Temperature transition between warmer surface water and colder water at depth Temperature transition between warmer surface water and colder water at depth Only present in warm months Only present in warm months

34 Fall Turnover

35 Marshes and Swamps o Lands that shallow, fresh water covers for at least part of the year Characteristic soil- water logged and anaerobic for periods of time Characteristic soil- water logged and anaerobic for periods of time Water tolerant vegetation Water tolerant vegetation o Were once regularly filled in More recently their ecosystem services have been better recognized More recently their ecosystem services have been better recognized Flood protection, water Flood protection, water filtering, etc.

36 Estuaries o Where freshwater and saltwater mix o Highly variable environment Temperature, salinity, depth of light penetration Temperature, salinity, depth of light penetration o Highly productive Nutrients transported from land Nutrients transported from land Tidal action promotes rapid circulation of nutrients Tidal action promotes rapid circulation of nutrients High level of light penetrates shallow water High level of light penetrates shallow water Many plants provide photosynthetic carpet Many plants provide photosynthetic carpet

37 Estuaries..\Videos\Scientists fear 'tipping point' in Pacific Ocean.flv

38 Marine Ecosystems o Subdivided into life zones Intertidal zone Intertidal zone Benthic zone Benthic zone Pelagic environment Pelagic environment Neritic Province Neritic Province Oceanic Province Oceanic Province

39 Intertidal Zone o Area of shoreline between low and high tides o Habitat Sandy or rocky Sandy or rocky o Muscles o Crabs o Algae o Oysters o Barnacles o Animals must adapts to changing conditions

40 Benthic Zone o Ocean floor, extending from tidal zone to deep sea trenches o Sediment is mostly mud Burrowing worms and clams Burrowing worms and clams o Three zone Bathyal: 200m m deep Bathyal: 200m m deep Abyssal: 4000m -6000m deep Abyssal: 4000m -6000m deep Hadal: 6000m – bottom of deep sea trenches Hadal: 6000m – bottom of deep sea trenches

41 Productive Benthic Communities o Seagrass Beds Present to depth of 10 m Present to depth of 10 m Provide food and habitat to Provide food and habitat toecosystem o Kelp Forest 60-m long brown algae found off rocky shores 60-m long brown algae found off rocky shores Diversity of life supported by kelp rivals coral reefs Diversity of life supported by kelp rivals coral reefs o Coral Reefs Built from accumulated layers of CaCO 3 Built from accumulated layers of CaCO 3 Colonies of millions of tiny coral animals Colonies of millions of tiny coral animals Found in shallow warm water Found in shallow warm water Most diverse of all marine environments Most diverse of all marine environments

42 Productive Benthic Communities Left: Seagrass Bed Right: Kelp Forest

43 Coral Reef Environments o Three types of coral reefs Fringing reef- directly attach to continent- no lagoon Fringing reef- directly attach to continent- no lagoon Atoll- circular reef in a lagoon Atoll- circular reef in a lagoon Barrier reef- separates lagoon from ocean Barrier reef- separates lagoon from ocean

44 Human Disturbance

45 Human Impact on Coral Reefs o Sedimentation From clear-cutting upstream From clear-cutting upstream o Overfishing o Coral bleaching o Mining of corals as building materials o Runoff pollution

46 Pelagic Environment o All the open ocean water o Two main divisions Neritic Province Neritic Province Water that overlies the continental shelf (to depth of 200 m) Water that overlies the continental shelf (to depth of 200 m) Organisms are all floaters or swimmers Organisms are all floaters or swimmers Oceanic Province Oceanic Province Water that overlies depths greater than 200 m Water that overlies depths greater than 200 m 75% of world’s ocean 75% of world’s ocean Most organisms are dependent on marine snow Most organisms are dependent on marine snow Organisms are filter feeders, scavengers and predators Organisms are filter feeders, scavengers and predators

47 Human Impacts on the Ocean


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