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Five Biomes of Alaska Tundra Tundra Boreal Forest Boreal Forest Temperate Rain Forest Temperate Rain Forest Wetlands Wetlands Ocean Ocean.

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Presentation on theme: "Five Biomes of Alaska Tundra Tundra Boreal Forest Boreal Forest Temperate Rain Forest Temperate Rain Forest Wetlands Wetlands Ocean Ocean."— Presentation transcript:

1 Five Biomes of Alaska Tundra Tundra Boreal Forest Boreal Forest Temperate Rain Forest Temperate Rain Forest Wetlands Wetlands Ocean Ocean

2 Vocabulary Biome: A large community of plants and animals that occupies a distinct region. Terrestrial biomes, typically defined by their climate and dominant vegetation, include grassland, tundra, desert, tropical rainforest, and deciduous and coniferous forests. There are two basic aquatic biomes, freshwater and marine, which are sometimes further broken down into categories such as lakes and rivers or pelagic, benthic, and intertidal zones. Biome: A large community of plants and animals that occupies a distinct region. Terrestrial biomes, typically defined by their climate and dominant vegetation, include grassland, tundra, desert, tropical rainforest, and deciduous and coniferous forests. There are two basic aquatic biomes, freshwater and marine, which are sometimes further broken down into categories such as lakes and rivers or pelagic, benthic, and intertidal zones. Biotic: Consisting of living organisms. An ecosystem is made up of a biotic community (all of the naturally occurring organisms within the system) together with the physical environment. Biotic: Consisting of living organisms. An ecosystem is made up of a biotic community (all of the naturally occurring organisms within the system) together with the physical environment. Abiotic: Not associated with or derived from living organisms. Abiotic factors in an environment include such items as sunlight, temperature, wind patterns, and precipitation. Abiotic: Not associated with or derived from living organisms. Abiotic factors in an environment include such items as sunlight, temperature, wind patterns, and precipitation. Ecosystem: A community of organisms together with their physical environment, viewed as a system of interacting and interdependent relationships and including such processes as the flow of energy through trophic levels and the cycling of chemical elements and compounds through living and nonliving components of the system. Ecosystem: A community of organisms together with their physical environment, viewed as a system of interacting and interdependent relationships and including such processes as the flow of energy through trophic levels and the cycling of chemical elements and compounds through living and nonliving components of the system.

3 Tundra Characteristics of tundra include: Characteristics of tundra include: 1. Extremely cold climate 2. Low biotic diversity 3. Simple vegetation structure 4. Limitation of drainage 5. Short season of growth and reproduction 6. Energy and nutrients in the form of dead organic material 7. Large population oscillations

4 Boreal Forest Characteristics of the Boreal Forest 1.Temperatures are very low. 2.Precipitation is primarily in the form of snow, cm annually. 3.Soil is thin, nutrient-poor, and acidic. 4.Canopy permits low light penetration, and as a result, understory is limited. 5.Flora consist mostly of cold-tolerant evergreen conifers with needle-like leaves, such as pine, fir, and spruce. 6.Fauna include woodpeckers, hawks, moose, bear, weasel, lynx, fox, wolf, deer, hares, chipmunks, shrews, and bats.

5 Temperate Rainforest Characteristics of the Temperate Rainforest 1. Temperature varies from -30° C to 30° C. 2. Precipitation ( cm) is distributed evenly throughout the year. 3. Soil is fertile, enriched with decaying litter. 4. Canopy is moderately dense and allows light to penetrate, resulting in well-developed and richly diversified understory vegetation and stratification of animals. 5. Flora is characterized by 3-4 tree species per square kilometer. Trees are distinguished by broad leaves that are lost annually and include such species as oak, hickory, beech, hemlock, maple, basswood, cottonwood, elm, willow, and spring-flowering herbs. 6. Fauna is represented by squirrels, rabbits, skunks, birds, deer, mountain lion, bobcat, timber wolf, fox, and black bear.

6 Wetlands Characteristics of Wetlands: 1. Wetlands are areas of standing water that support aquatic plants. Marshes, swamps, and bogs are all considered wetlands. 2. Plant species adapted to the very moist and humid conditions are called hydrophytes. These include pond lilies, cattails, sedges, tamarack, and black spruce. Marsh flora also include such species as cypress and gum. 3. Wetlands have the highest species diversity of all ecosystems. Many species of amphibians, reptiles, birds (such as ducks and waders), and furbearers can be found in the wetlands. 4. Wetlands are not considered freshwater ecosystems as there are some, such as salt marshes, that have high salt concentrations — these support different species of animals, such as shrimp, shellfish, and various grasses.

7 Ocean Characteristics of the Ocean: 1. The largest of all the ecosystems, oceans are very large bodies of water that dominate the Earth's surface. 2. The ocean regions are separated into separate zones: intertidal, pelagic, abyssal, and benthic. All four zones have a great diversity of species. 3. Some say that the ocean contains the richest diversity of species even though it contains fewer species than there are on land.

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9 Alaska’s Biomes! A rich diverse home to a plethora of organisms.


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