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LESSON 25 BYZANTINE EMPIRE: FROM LEO THE ISAUREAN TO THE EAST WEST SCHISM.

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Presentation on theme: "LESSON 25 BYZANTINE EMPIRE: FROM LEO THE ISAUREAN TO THE EAST WEST SCHISM."— Presentation transcript:

1 LESSON 25 BYZANTINE EMPIRE: FROM LEO THE ISAUREAN TO THE EAST WEST SCHISM

2 I. Political and Military History Leo the Isaurian ( )Constantine V ( ) Sought to reform church:iconoclast controversy Defended territories against Arab MuslimsGreek Fire Lost Ravenna in Italy to the Franks Suffered under Empress Irene Amorian Dynasty Successful against Arab Muslims Fought off invading Russians Led Bulgers to confess the Orthodox faith in 860

3 Macedonian Dynasty Basel I ( )“Golden Age” Basel II ( ) “During the long reign of Basil II the Byzantine Empire became the greatest power in the entire Christian and Muslim world” Dr. Nick Needham

4 II.Eastern Worship BUILDING No pews No musical instruments icons COMMUNION SERVICE Cense the icons antiphonal Essentially the same form/type of worship practiced today! “Where perfect sweetness dwells has Cosmas gone: But his sweet songs to cheer the Church live on”

5 III.The Iconoclastic Controversy( ) “two dimensional pictures or drawings”

6 1.Muslims opposed icons; Islam was God’s judgment on icon worshipping Byzantium! 2. ‘I am Emperor and Priest” ICONOCLASTSICON BREAKERS ICONODULESICON VENERATORS ICONOPHILESICON LOVERS Constantine VCouncil of Constantinople (754) Leo IV ( ) Empress Irene ( ) 2nd Nicea (787) 7 th Ecumenical Council Empress Theodora (842) “The Triumph of Orthodoxy”

7 THEOLOGY OF ICONS 1. Do they violate the 2 nd Commandment? Iconoclasts-Yes Wine and bread Cross, not crucifix

8 Iconodules-NO!2 nd Commandment forbids making images of a false God, but not of Christ who is the true God “When I worship the icon of God, I am not worshipping the nature of the wood And the colors (God Forbid!); but, holding to the non-living portrait of Christ I intend through it to hold and worship Christ himself” Leonitus of Neapolis (d. 650) 2 nd Council of Nicea, 867 Absolute worship latria Secondary veneration of the icon proskunesis 2.Does the fact that the Son of God became a man enable us to portray Him as a man?

9 3. What was the practice of the Early Church? 4. What was best for the uneducated people who could not read?” “What the written word is to those who can read, the icon is to the illiterate; what speech is to the ear, the icon is to the eye” John of Damascus SUMMARY:Mostly Eastern Church issue “There is not a single unambiguous text that mandated icon veneration in the first three centuries”Dr. Calhoun

10 IV.PHOTIUS AND THE FILIOQUE CONTROVERSY Photius ( ) Teach that the Holy Spirit “proceeds from the Father and the Son “filioque” Latin “and the Son” “Treatise on the Mystagogia of the Holy Spirit”

11 V. Byzantine Monasteries and Simeon the Theologian VI. Byzantine missionary activity Morovia Bulgari a Romania

12 VII.Great East West Schism 1. Great rivalry between Rome and Constantinople 2. Great differences in practice 3. Major theological differences 4. Final events precipitating the schism WESTERN CATHOLIC CHURCH EASTERN ORTHODOX CHURCH

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