Presentation on theme: "Byzantine Empire. Byzantine Empire (395-1453) 330 A.D.-- Constantinople becomes the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire. It was dedicated in May of this."— Presentation transcript:
Byzantine Empire ( ) 330 A.D.-- Constantinople becomes the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire. It was dedicated in May of this year Constantine rebuilds the Greek city of Byzantium
Column of Constantine Cemberlitas The Burnt Column as it is also known as was built to honor Constantine in 330. It stands on top of the second hill of Istanbul. It was originally higher than it is today and was topped by a statue of Constantine dressed as the sun god.
Geography Bosporus—a strait, which is a narrow body of water connecting two larger bodies of water
Constantinople A harbor protected on three sides by water Quick Quiz In reference to Constantinapole where would you find these bodies of water? ?--Sea of Marmara ?--Bosporus, a straight ?--Black Sea
Constantinople The city was protected on land with walls for defense. These were known as the Theodosian Walls
Constantinople Why is Constantinople so important? It is an important hub for trade. Silk from China, wheat from Egypt and spices from southeast Asia. It is an International City. It has ancient Greek, Roman and Christian influences and political threats from Islam.
Constantinople Age of Justinian
San Vitale at Ravenna in northern Italy
Justinian rose to power in 527 with his appointment as co-emperor to Justin I, his uncle, who died later that same year. He remained in power until 565. In the religious sphere he took a role in shaping church policy. He fought to extinguish the last vestiges of Greco- Roman paganism, to root out and to oppose competing Christian sects, including the Arians and the Monophysites.
Theodora ( )
Age of Justinian Rules from Foreign Policy Purpose--Revive ancient Rome by conquering the provinces that were overran by invaders. Belisarius—his general conquers North Africa, Italy and southern Spain.
Age of Justinian Government Corpus Juris Civilis--body of civil law published in December 533 Justinian’s Code--used to collect, revise and organize all the laws of ancient Rome
Constantinople Architecture Hippodrome A multi-purpose stadium where chariot races were held.
Constantinople Architecture Hagia Sophia Holy Wisdom Church Persian dome with a rectangle base
Constantinople Architecture Close up view of the Hagia Sophia
Constantinople Architecture Interior of the Hagia Sophia 15 th Century it becomes a mosque. Today, it is a museum.
Great Schism 1054 I—Nicene Creed II—Primacy, Emperor Vs. Patriarch III—Iconoclastic Controversy IV—Leavened Vs. Unleavened Bread
Great Schism 1054 I Nicene Creed
Great Schism 1054 I—Nicene Creed Developed at the Council of Nicene in 325 as a development of the heresy of Arius (Arianism) Arius—a priest in Alexandria who believed that the Father, Son and Holy Spirit were separate.
Great Schism 1054 I—Nicene Creed Holy Spirit Father Father Son Son Eastern Orthodox Roman Catholic
Great Schism 1054 II—Primacy, Emperor Vs. Patriarch After the fall of Rome in 476 A.D. Constantinople was the seat of power for the Eastern Roman Empire. The patriarch of Constantinople had jurisdiction over Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem. Some emperors even claimed to be equal in authority to the twelve apostles and as such claimed to have power to appoint the patriarch of Constantinople. The patriarch served at the emperor’s pleasure. One of the first controversies was when Emperor Constantine appointed an Arian heretic as a patriarch.
Great Schism 1054 III Iconoclastic Controversy Reliquary of the True Cross, late 8 th and early 9 th Century Byzantine
Great Schism 1054 Icon, What is it? A sacred image venerated in churches and homes. Why is it a problem?
Great Schism 1054 The Iconoclastic theologians believed the worship of images, or icons was fundamentally a pagan belief. Products of human hands should not be worshipped only Christ and God should be the proper objects of veneration. Possible Influence Islam
Great Schism 1054 Emperor Leo III (rules ), he supports Iconoclasm, breaking of images. Pope’s Response Views it as a threat not only to his authority but to church practices. Iconoclasm dies out in the 9 th century.
Great Schism 1054 IV Leavened Vs. Unleavened Bread
Great Schism 1054 Greek Rite Leavened Bread Patriarch Cerularius forces Latin rite (Western Christians) in Constantinople to use leavened bread.
Great Schism 1054 Latin Rite Unleavened bread Conquering Normans in southern Italy forced Greeks to use unleavened bread for their eucharist.
Byzantine Influences in Russia The Byzantine’s had connections to Russia via the Dnieper (nee puhr) and Volga Rivers.
Byzantine Influences in Russia
Cyril and Methodius --brothers, they were born in Thessalonica in 827 and 826 respectively. --They were living in a monastery on the Bosporus when the Khazars sent to Constantinople for a Christian teacher. --They both developed an alphabet to translate the Gospels and liturgical books into Slavonic.