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Iconography: history & theology 1.The beginnings of Christian art: from the catacombs to basilicas. 2.Iconoclastic Controversy. 3.The functions of images.

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Presentation on theme: "Iconography: history & theology 1.The beginnings of Christian art: from the catacombs to basilicas. 2.Iconoclastic Controversy. 3.The functions of images."— Presentation transcript:

1 Iconography: history & theology 1.The beginnings of Christian art: from the catacombs to basilicas. 2.Iconoclastic Controversy. 3.The functions of images in the Church. Transfiguration. Apse mosaic, St Catherine's Monastery, Mount Sinai. c. 565/6.

2 The earliest image of Mary with Christ Child and unidentified Prophet (?). Catacomb of Priscilla, late 2 nd (?)- early 3 rd c.

3 Cryptic art of the catacombs 6 Sinai Christ Catacomb of Domitilla. Rome. 3 rd c.

4 Good Shepherd. Catacomb of Domitilla. Rome. 3 rd c.

5 Christ teaching apostles Catacomb of Domitilla. Rome. 3 rd c.

6 This is Plotinus and his students And this is… Church of St Julia, Brescia. Ivory panel. ca

7 Jesus Raising Lazarus. Via Latina Catacomb, Rome.

8 This is Jesus too (believe it or not) Rome, Museo Nazionale Delle Terme, ca. 350.

9 Christ surrounded by apostles Basilica of St Pudenziana, Rome, ca. 400.

10 Youthful Christ Basilica of San Vitale, Ravenna,

11 One of the earliest illuminated manuscripts Communion. Rossano Gospels. 6 th c.

12 Sinai icon compared to the negative of the image on the Shroud of Turin

13 The Dominant Image in the Byzantine period Christ Pantokrator. Hagia Sophia, Instanbul, ca. 1185

14 What did Jesus really look like?

15 Reasons for the outbreak of iconoclasm Reaction to the loss of Eastern provinces to the Arabs

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18 Reasons for the outbreak of iconoclasm Reaction to the loss of Eastern provinces to the Arabs

19 Impact of Islam upon Emperor Leo III Dome of Blue Mosque. Istanbul, Turkey.

20 Emperor’s attempt to break the power of the monastic institutions

21 Reasons for the outbreak of iconoclasm in the 8 th c. Emperor’s attempt to break the power of the monastic institutions (Peter Brown) Reaction to the loss of the Eastern provinces to the Arabs Impact of Islam upon Emperor Leo III

22 Possible Jewish influences? Binding of Isaac. Floor mosaic. Synagogue of Beth Alpha, c. 518 C.E.

23 Iconoclastic council in 754 Iconoclasts destroying icons. Chludov Psalter c

24 S Partial Iconoclasm (?). Chapel near Trigonian Tower, Thessaloniki, late 11 th -early 12 th c.

25 The Cross, after 740. Apse mosaic. St Irene, Istanbul. The Theotokos and Child (replacing a cross) and 11th cent. Apse mosaic. St Sophia, Thessaloniki.

26 Iconoclastic controversy timeline 726 Emperor Leo III ( ) issues a ban on all religious imagery 754 Iconoclastic council summoned in Constantinople under Constantine V, son of Leo III. 787 Second Council of Nicaea, with the support of the Empress Irene, defends the use of icons. 813 Leo V revives iconoclasm, opposed by Theodore the Studite. 820 Michael II assassinates Leo V and adopts policy of toleration 843 Iconoclastic period ends. Veneration of icons established under patriarch Theophilus. Empress Theodora promotes the restoration of icons. Empress Irene. Pala d’Oro. Venice, 10 th c.

27 Christ flanked by Empress Zoe and her (third) husband

28 John of Damascus ( ) Brought up at the court of the caliph of Damascus Resigned his position and entered monastery of St. Sabbas c. 726 Wrote On the Orthodox Faith Defended icons

29 Functions of Icons in the Church 1: “The Bible for the illiterate”

30 Functions of Icons in the Church 2: Means of remembrance

31 Functions of Icons in the Church 3: Theology in Color

32 Functions of Icons in the Church 4: Windows into the Kingdom of Heaven Sketch of the Iconostasis of St Seraphim’s Cathedral, Dallas, TX

33 St Seraphim Cathedral, Dallas, Texas

34 Functions of Icons in the Church: Summary “The Bible for the illiterate” Means of remembrance Theology in color Windows into the kingdom of heaven “Crutches of prayer”

35 The Christ of the Seven Ecumenical Councils 1: FULL DIVINITY 2: FULL HUMANITY 3 : UNITY OF DIVINITY AND HUMANITY 4 : DISTINCTION OF DIVINITY & HUMANITY 5: UNITY-IN-DISTINCTION 6: DISTINCTION OF WILLS 7: UNITY IN ICONOGRAPHY

36 Dr. Gavrilyuk’s Iconoclasm Meter Any candidates for contemp. iconoclasts? Calvin Eastern Orthodox Muslims Jews Anglicans Methodists Luther Roman Catholics Quakers


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