1500 India is divided into Hindu and Muslim Kingdoms. Moguls were not natives of India. Founder was Babur. Smaller army, but had better weapons. Captured Delhi.
Grandson of Babur By 1605, most of India was under his rule. Heavy artillery. Appeared highly centralized, but was actually a collection of semi-independent states. Greatest of Mogul monarchs Humane character. Religious tolerance. Interest in other religions (inc. Hinduism). Hindu princess as one of his wives. Jesuit advisors at court.
Government High ranking non-native Muslims. Lower ranking officials were Hindus. Lower officials were given plots of farmland for temporary use. zamindars-= they kept a portion of the taxes the peasants paid in lieu of a salary.
Akbar era = progress. Peasants gave 1/3 of annual harvest to the state. If they had bad weather, taxes were reduced or suspended. Trade and manufacturing flourished. Textiles, food, spices, precious stones were exported. Gold and silver were imported. Arab traders.
Akbar’s son Jahangir (juh-HAHN- GIHR ) 1628-1658 Grip weakened. Empress Nur Jahan tried to enrich her own family. Niece + husband’s third son (Shah Jahan) Maintained political system. Expanded the boundaries of empire.
Domestic problems An empty treasury. Majority of his subjects lived in poverty. Mid 1650s became ill. Struggle for power between two sons. Aurangzeb had his brother put to death and imprisoned his father. Then crowned emperor in 1658.
Wanted to eliminate social “evils”. Forbade suttee= cremating a widow on her husbands’ funeral pyre). Levying illegal taxes. Tried to forbid gambling and drinking too.
Devout Muslim. Reversed religious tolerance Prohibited the building of new Hindu temples. Hindus were forced to convert to Islam.
Hindu outcries over religious policies. Revolts against imperial authority. Divided India was vulnerable to attack from abroad. 1739, Delhi was sacked by the Persians.