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Chapter 8 The Muslim Empires

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1 Chapter 8 The Muslim Empires
Section 3 The Grandeur of the Moguls

2 The Mogul Dynasty Babur founded the Mogul Empire.
He inherited some of Timur Lenk’s empire. Seized Kabul in 1504. Always outnumbered, but had advanced weapons, including artillery. Captured Delhi vs. an army 10x his size. Died in 1530 at 47.

3 The Reign of Akbar Babur’s grandson Akbar came to the throne at 14.
By 1605 he brought Mogul rule to most of India. Used heavy artillery for his military success. The Moguls were also good negotiators.

4 The Reign of Akbar Akbar’s great empire was a collection of semi-independent states held together by the emperor's power. Akbar was known as a humane ruler. He was a Muslim that tolerated other religions. One of his wives was Hindu. Also had Christian Jesuits as advisers at his court.

5 The Reign of Akbar Upper ranks of the administration were filled with non-native Muslims, but lower-ranking officials were generally Hindus. Local officials were known as zamindars. They collected taxes and were quite powerful in their regions.

6 The Reign of Akbar Reign was progressive.
Al peasants paid 1/3 of their harvest to the state. Taxes were reduced or suspended if weather was unfavorable to farming. Trade & manufacturing flourished due to the peace and stability.

7 Decline of the Moguls Akbar’s son, Jahangir, succeeded him in 1605.
At first he strengthened the governments control.

8 Decline of the Moguls His grip weakened under the influence of one of his wives. She used her influence to enrich her family. Her neice married her husband’s third son, who became his successor, Shah Jahan

9 Decline of the Moguls Shah Jahan ruled from 1628 to 1658.
Expanded the empire through successful campaigns in the Deccan Plateau and against the city of Samarkand.

10 Decline of the Moguls Shah Jahan failed to deal with the growing domestic problems. War & building projects strained the treasury, and he raised taxes. Majority of his subjects lived in poverty.

11 Decline of the Moguls Shah Jahan became ill, and his two sons struggled for power. Aurangzeb killed his brother and imprisoned Shah Jahan, and assumed power.

12 Decline of the Moguls Aurangzeb tried to rid India of its social ills:
Hindu practice of suttee (cremating a widow on her husband’s funeral pyre) Levying illegal taxes Gambling Drinking alcohol. Banned building new Hindu temples and forced them to convert to Islam

13 Decline of the Moguls His policies led to domestic unrest.
1739 – Persians sacked and burned Delhi.

14 The British in India British trading posts were established at Surat, Fort William (Calcutta) and Chennai. British shipped cotton goods, trading them for spices. French tried to suppress British trade in India.

15 The British in India British were saved by Sir Robert Clive.
Became the chief representative of the East India Company. French were beaten and restricted to holding one fort & a handful of small territories.

16 The British in India Clive consolidated British control in Bengal, where Fort William was located. 1757, British defeated a Mogul army in the Battle of Plassey. The E.I. Co. received the right to collect taxes from lands surrounding Calcutta. They also moved inland and became rich and were in India to stay.

17 Society & Daily Life in Mogul India
Due to the mix of Muslims & Hindus in India, ordinary life was complicated. This is shown by the treatment of Mogul women.

18 Mogul Women Mogul tribal society: Mogul India:
Had an active political role. Sometimes fought in wars. Mogul India: Aristocratic women often received salaries. Owned land Took part in business.

19 Mogul Women Lived under the restrictions of Islamic law.
Suttee continued despite efforts to eradicate it. Also the Hindu custom of child marriage continued.

20 Mogul Society Wealthy nobility and merchant class emerged.
Many prominent Indians had ties with foreigners such as the British. Outside cities, people lived in mud huts and had few, paltry possessions.

21 Mogul Culture Blended Persian and Indian styles in a beautiful, new architecture. The Taj Mahal in Agra, built by Shah Jahan exemplifies this style.



24 Mogul Culture Painting also flourished in the Mogul period.
Akbar established a state workshop for artists, who created the Mogul school of painting called the “Akbar style.” Portrayed humans in action. Encouraged use of European devices, such as Renaissance perspective & lifelike portraits.



27 Mogul Culture Because Mogul emperors were dedicated patrons of the arts, many artists went to India. The emperors would reward a poet with their weight in gold.

28 End of Chapter 8

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