Presentation on theme: "The Mughal Dynasty Period Between 1500-1800 1. Great Empire a. foreigners and Muslim 2. From mountainous region north of the Indus river valley."— Presentation transcript:
The Mughal Dynasty
Period Between 1500-1800 1. Great Empire a. foreigners and Muslim 2. From mountainous region north of the Indus river valley
The Mughal Dynasty Babur - descendent 1. Asian conqueror Tamerlane 2. Genghis Khan - inherited upland river area of Syr Darya - lead a group of warriors 1. seized Kabul in 1504 2. 1517 crossed the Khyber Pass 3. fights Indians a. outnumbered b. wins * capture Delhi - Dies 1530
The Mughal Dynasty Akbar - grandson of Babur - took over when he was 14 - very intelligent - extends rule over most of subcontinent(1605) 1. heavy artillery 2. semi-autonomous states
The Mughal Dynasty Known for his Humane Rule 1. accepted the diversity of Indian civilization a. religious tolerance * allowed Hindus to serve in court * allowed the Jesuits b. allowed Hindus to serve in court c. took Hindu wives as some of his princesses
The Mughal Dynasty Tolerant Administration 1 high officials were Muslims 2. lower officials were Hindu 3. Zamindars (Local Officials) a. paid in land b. peasants farmed land for the officials * 1/3 of a peasants salary taxed * taxes flexible Political Stability Allowed Industry to Flourish
The Mughal Dynasty Jahangir - court fell into the hands of his wives a. Nur Jahan * used her position to increase her families wealth
The Mughal Dynasty Shah Jahan 1. son of Nur Jahan 2. ruler in 1627 a. killed rivals 3. failed at internal problems a. inherited empty treasury * Nur Jahan b. majority of subjects in horrible poverty c. military campaigns & building project * raise taxes d. Transportation Problems * nothing done
The Mughal Dynasty As the famine increased, men abandoned towns and villages and wandered helplessly. It was easy to recognize their condition: eyes sunk deep in head, lips pale and covered with slime, the skin hard, with the bones showing through, the belly nothing but a pouch hanging down empty, knuckles and knee-caps showing prominently. One would cry and howl for hunger, while another lay stretched on the ground dying in misery; wherever you went, you saw nothing but corpses.
Shah Jehan Taj Mahal –Built in honor of his wife who died during childbirth. –Took over a decade to build and it nearly bankrupted the empire. 1657 - Shah Jehan became seriously ill and a dispute over the succession of the throne ensued between his three sons. Aurangzeb deposed Shah Jehan in a coup d’etat in 1658. Shah Jehan was imprisoned in the Octagonal Tower of the Agra Fort from which he could see the Taj Mahal. He died in 1666 and was buried next to his wife in the Taj Mahal.
The Mughal Dynasty Struggle for Power Aurangzeb - kills his brother - imprisons his father - devoutly Muslim - good things 1. forbid Hindu suttee 2. forbid illegal taxes 3. forbid gambling and drinking (failed) - bad things 1. new Hindu temples forbidden 2. non-Muslims driven from court 3. Hindus forced to convert to Islam