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Safavid & Mogul Empires “The Gunpowder Empires”

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Presentation on theme: "Safavid & Mogul Empires “The Gunpowder Empires”"— Presentation transcript:

1 Safavid & Mogul Empires “The Gunpowder Empires”

2 Jan 2014 For which achievement is Suleiman the Magnificent best known? (1) building the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem (2) spreading Christianity into the Balkan Peninsula (3) conquering the Russian capital of Moscow (4) uniting the Ottoman Empire under an efficient government structure


4 Safavid Empire Iran

5 The Rule of the Safavids
16th C: take control of area extending from Persia into central Asia (Iran) Founded by Shah Ismail Continual struggle between the Safavids and the Ottomans (north) until the 1580s

6 Political and Social Structures
Mixed Society: Combination of Turkish and Persian elements Political System Shah Bureaucracy and landed classes Common People

7 The Role of the Shah Safavid ruler Supported by the Shiites
Direct successor of the prophet Muhammad – Shiism = state religion Available to subjects Firmly controlled the power of the landed aristocracy Appointment to the bureaucracy was based on merit rather than birth (meritocracy)

8 Safavid Culture Knowledge of science, math, and medicine
Arts flourished Palaces Mosques Silk weaving Carpet weaving: became highly prized Painting Soft colors and flowing movement

9 Ottoman and Safavid Empires
Ottoman Empire Safavid Empire Arose in the 14th C Expanded from northwest Anatolian Peninsula to Western Asia, eastern Europe, and North Africa Attempted to conquer central Europe Sunni Muslims Ruler: Sultan Was generally tolerant of non-Muslims in empire Began slow decline in the 17th C Arose in the early 16th C Controlled areas from Persia into central Asia; lost territory to Ottomans Allied with European states against Ottomans Shiite Muslims Ruler: Shah Used Shiite faith to unify peoples in empire Collapsed in 1723 Conquered surrounding territory Strong military used latest weapons Muslims Political and religious ruler inherited position and owned all land Mixed ethnicities and religions in society Encouraged trade and arts

10 Mughal Empire India

11 The Mughal Dynasty Founder: Babur - Descendant of Genghis Khan
Reunited kingdoms on the Indian subcontinent (1530s)

12 The Reign of Akbar By 1605 – brought Mughal rule to most of India
Used heavy artillery Successful negotiators Collection of semi-independent states held together by the power of the emperor Best known for the humane character of his rule Religious tolerance Tolerant in administration of government Period of peace and prosperity

13 January 2014 One similarity in the rule of Akbar the Great and the rule of Elizabeth I is that both leaders implemented policies that encouraged (1) compulsory education (2) military disarmament (3) voter participation (4) religious toleration

14 August 2013 One way in which Akbar the Great, Suleiman the Magnificent, and Philip II are similar is that they (1) attempted to colonize the Americas (2) supported democratic reforms in their countries (3) tried to make Christianity the dominant religion of Asia (4) controlled large empires at the height of their power

15 June 2013 Which form of government is associated with the reigns of Suleiman the Magnificent, Akbar the Great, and Peter the Great? (1) constitutional monarchy (2) direct democracy (3) theocracy (4) absolute monarchy

16 Decline of the Mughals 1658: Aurangzeb crowned emperor
Man of high principle = attempt to eliminate many of what he considered to be India’s social evils Forbade Hindu custom of suttee Forbade levying of illegal taxes Tried to forbid drinking and gambling as well Devout Muslim = adopted a number of measures that reversed the Mogul policies of religious tolerance domestic upheaval and revolts 1739: Delhi sacked by Persians

17 The British in India Arrival of the British hastened the decline of the Mughals British East India Company: under direction of Sir Robert Clive - - empowered to act on any threat to the company

18 Mughal Culture Persian and Indian influences Taj Mahal
Built by Agra in the mid-17th C in memory of his wife Financed by raising land taxes = many peasants into poverty Considered most beautiful building in India, if not the entire world

19 Mughal Culture Persian and Indian influences Dedicated patron of arts
Paintings Akbar established a state workshop for artists: “Akbar style” – portrayal of humans in action, use of perspective, and lifelike portraits Dedicated patron of arts It is said that the Moguls would reward a poet with his weight in gold.

20 Mogul Rulers Ruler Accomplishment Weakness Babur
Established Mogul dynasty Small forces Akbar Extended rule throughout India Ruled young Jahangir Strengthened central control of government Allowed wife to enrich her family Shah Jahan Expanded boundaries Strained treasury Aurangzeb Prohibited suttee, illegal taxes, drinking, gambling Created internal unrest

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