Presentation on theme: "SEMICOLON/COLON RULES. SEMICOLONS—RULE #1 Use a semicolon between the parts of a compound sentence if they are not joined by and, but, or, not, for, or."— Presentation transcript:
SEMICOLONS—RULE #1 Use a semicolon between the parts of a compound sentence if they are not joined by and, but, or, not, for, or yet. Examples: Jimmy took Mother’s suitcase upstairs; he left Dad’s in the car. After school, I went to the play rehearsal; then I studied in the library for an hour.
SEMICOLONS—RULE #2 A semicolon (rather than a comma) may be needed to separate the parts of a compound sentence if there are commas within the parts. Confusing: I wrote to Ann, Beth, and Meg, and Jean notified Terry and Sue. Clear: I wrote to Ann, Beth, and Meg; and Jean notified Terry and Sue. Note: Semicolons are also used between items in a series when the items contain commas. Example: He was born on September 27, 1983; began school on September 4, 1988; and graduated from high school on May 17, 2001.
SEMICOLONS—RULE #3 AccordinglyFurthermoreInsteadNevertheless BesidesHoweverMeanwhileOtherwise ConsequentlyIndeedMoreoverTherefore Commonly Used Transition Expressions As a resultFor exampleFor instanceThat is In additionIn other wordsIn conclusionIn fact Use a semicolon between independent clauses that are joined by a conjunctive adverb or a transitional expression (See Page 650). Examples: English was Lou’s hardest subject; accordingly, he gave it more time than any other subject. The popular names of certain animals are misleading; for example, the koala bear is not a bear.
EXAMPLES The fruit fly is an interesting insect; for example, it can breed up to ten times in one hour. The fruit fly, for example, can breed up to ten times in one hour. I am going to the dance; however, I am not going to dinner. I, however, will not go to dinner. I was fired from my last job; consequently, I must look for a new one. I was fired from my last job and, consequently, must look for a new one.
COLON RULE #1 Use a colon before a list of items, especially after expressions such as the following and as follows. Examples: 1. Jack’s pocket contained the following items: a knife, half an apple, a piece of gum, and two rusty nails. 2. The primary colors in the painting are as follows: red, blue and yellow.
COLON RULE #1 CONTINUED NOTE: The colon is never used directly after a verb or a preposition. Omit the colon or reword the sentence. CORRECT: My favorite sports are the following ones: basketball, tennis, swimming, and bowling. My favorite sports are basketball, tennis, swimming, and bowling. INCORRECT: My favorite sports are: basketball, tennis, swimming, and bowling.
COLON RULE #2 Use a colon between the hour and the minute when you write the time. Examples: 8:30 A.M. 10:00 P.M.
COLON RULE #3 Use a colon after the salutation of a business letter. Examples: Dear Sir: Dear Mrs. Foster:
ADD TO NOTES: Use a colon between chapter and verse in Biblical references and between titles and subtitles. John 3:16 Twilight: Breaking Dawn
COLON RULE #4 Use a colon before a long, formal statement or quotation. Patrick Henry concluded his revolutionary speech before the Virginia House with these ringing words: “Is life so dear, or peace so sweet as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery? Forbid it, Almighty God! I know not what course others may take, but as for me, give me liberty or give me death!”
COLON RULE #5 Use a colon before a statement that explains or clarifies a preceding statement. Examples: The artist showed me how to make lavender: Mix blue, white, and a little red. This is my motto: Laugh and the world laughs with you.