Presentation on theme: "A GENDA 10.27.09. E UROPE IN THE M IDDLE A GES 1. Drill – What conditions should exist in a society to encourage population growth? 2. Powerpoint – Europe."— Presentation transcript:
E UROPE IN THE M IDDLE A GES 1. Drill – What conditions should exist in a society to encourage population growth? 2. Powerpoint – Europe in the Middle Ages 3. Take notes, make questions 4. HOMEWORK – read and OUTLINE on your own 139 – 141 (the late Middle Ages)
E UROPE IN THE M IDDLE A GES I. Peasants, Trade and Cities During the high Middle Ages, Europe’s population grew from 38 to 74 million. Why? The New Agriculture Climate change helps crops Peasants cultivated more land by cutting trees and draining swamps New technology helps farmers: Iron makes stronger devices The carruca = new iron plow that could deal with tough clay soil.
Improved crop rotation by using three fields instead of two. The Manorial System Landowning nobles needed time to pursue the “art of war” Manors = the land owned by the nobles (also known as lords) Peasants worked the land; lives dictated by seasons Peasants that were legally bound to the land were SERFS Serfs had to pay rent, work the land and live under the lord’s control By 800, 60% of Western Europe = serfs
The Revival of Trade Italy took the lead with trade Venice – had mercantile fleet (ships for trade). Was a trade hub by the 900s. As trade countries stop bartering and want actual $ Money Economy develops – economic system based on $ Commercial Capitalism (where people make investments in trade and goods to make profits)
The Growth of Cities Revival of trade revival of cities Cities usually formed when merchants and artisans settled down near a trade route People in cities = bourgeoisie Cities are walled for protection; also dirty, crowded and stinky Cities organized into guilds (business associations)
II. Medieval Christianity and Culture Popes controlled territories in Italy: Papal States. Made popes more political than spiritual. The Papal Monarchy In the early middle ages, churches got tangled up in the feudal system – nobles/landowners would appoint bishops and then the bishops would have to work for the nobles Pope Gregory VII decided he was personally chosen by God to fix the church – said nobles could no longer appoint church people, only the church could!
Pope Gregory said if any ruler didn’t like the new rule, the pope would remove them. German King Henry IV disagreed; wanted to appoint bishops to help him out. 1075, Gregory passed an official decree that forbid any church person from getting appointed by a secular (non-church) person. Pope Innocent III followed Greg, and brought the Catholic Church to its most powerful Believed that the Pope was the supreme judge of everything in Europe!
New Religious Orders Late 1000s – early 1100s, religion became popular Cistercian Order = active Christians; went out into community Lots of nuns – intellectual women entered convents Franciscan Order = founded by Francis of Assisi; preached repentance and aided the poor. Also did missionary work. Dominican Order = devoted to battling heresy (denial of basic church teachings). Developed the INQUISITION court or Holy Office to investigate possible heresy.
Saint Francis of Assisi Cistercians doing their thing.
Popular Religion Sacraments = baptism, marriage and communion Veneration of saints Worshipping of apostles Pilgrimages to Jerusalem and Rome Architecture New church architecture = romanesque Rectangular Stone arched roofs Massive pillars and walls No windows DARK!
Gothic – reached peak in 1200s Ribbed vaults and pointed arches Flying buttress – heavy, stone, arched supports on the outside of church walls Walls thinner, lots of windows with stained glass note the pointed arches!
Stained glass and ribbed vaults Flying buttresses
Universities Comes from the Latin word that means “corporation” or guild Early universities = guilds of education Kings, popes and princes founded new universities By 1500, there were 80 universities in Europe Taught classes using lecture (which, in Latin, means “to read”) New literature also written in vernacular – the language of everyday speech