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EARLY AMERICAN PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT. NATIVE AMERICANS’ SPORTS  Sport was closely aligned with social, spiritual, and economic aspects of life.

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Presentation on theme: "EARLY AMERICAN PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT. NATIVE AMERICANS’ SPORTS  Sport was closely aligned with social, spiritual, and economic aspects of life."— Presentation transcript:


2 NATIVE AMERICANS’ SPORTS  Sport was closely aligned with social, spiritual, and economic aspects of life  Gambling was widespread  Sports played varied by tribe

3  Baggataway (lacrosse)  Shinny (hockey)  Double-ball (field hockey)  Footraces  Archery  Swimming  Fishing  Canoeing

4 PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES IN THE COLONIES  Early settlers—survived with hunting, fishing, and work-related recreation  Puritans—forbid frivolous activities  Dutch—bowling; sleighing; horse racing  Virginians—fox hunting; horse racing; hawking; cockfighting  British influence—rounders; cricket; boxing; track and field

5 EARLY AMERICAN PHYSICAL EDUCATION  Introduction of German gymnastics  1823-1833—Round Hill School—Joseph Cogswell and George Bancroft  Daily sports and gymnastics  1825-1830—Charles Beck—turner and friend of Friedrich Jahn  Established an outdoor gymnastics area  Translated Jahn's book

6 EARLY AMERICAN PHYSICAL EDUCATION  Charles Follen—turner and pupil of Jahn's  Established gymnasium in Boston in 1826  Taught the first German gymnastics at Harvard in 1826  Francis Lieber—pupil of Jahn and a turner  Directed the Boston gymnasium in 1827  Started a pool in Boston in 1827

7 GERMAN GYMNASTICS  In the late 1820s and 1830s, decline of interest in German gymnastics  Round Hill School closed; Follen, Lieber, and Beck went into other jobs  Newness wore off  Too much emphasis on nationalism and strength  Only German teachers  Revival of German gymnastics in the 1850s when immigrants moved to the Midwest  1860—22 turnvereins; 1,672 members

8 Turnvereins

9 CATHARINE BEECHER  Director of the Hartford Seminary for Girls (1824) and the founder of the Western Female Institute (1837)  Calisthenics—a course of exercises designed to promote health and thus to secure beauty and strength (30 min a day)  No special room or apparatus  For the whole family, but especially for women—diagrams of how to execute exercises

10 CATHARINE BEECHER  Principles from Per Henrik Ling's Swedish gymnastics  Her program was probably the first system adapted to the needs of Americans  She was one of the first to actively struggle to establish physical education as a part of the school curriculum on a daily basis

11 DIOCLESION LEWIS  Light gymnastics or exercises with wands, rings, bean-bags, dumbbells, and Indian clubs along with music— teacher directed exercises  Borrowed ideas from Catharine Beecher and Per Henrik Ling (Swedish)  1861-1868—He founded: Normal Institute for Physical Education in Boston—first teacher training school for physical education in America

12 SWEDISH GYMNASTICS  Hartvig Nissen—Norwegian  In 1883 came to Washington, D.C. and taught Swedish gymnastics  Taught at Harvard Summer School, Sargent Normal School, and Posse- Nissen School

13 SWEDISH GYMNASTICS  Baron Nils Posse  Graduated from the Royal Gymnastics Central Institute in Sweden  Came to Boston in 1885  Taught at the Boston Normal School of Gymnastics (1889-1890)  Established the Posse Normal School in 1890

14 Field Hockey 1906

15 BOSTON NORMAL SCHOOL OF GYMNASTICS — 1889  Founded by Mary Hemenway  Directed by Amy Morris Homans  Baron Posse was the first teacher  Purpose was to train teachers in Swedish gymnastics  Moved to Wellesley College as the Department of Hygiene and Physical Education in 1909

16 Amy Morris Homans (1848- 1933)  Founded the Association of Directors of Physical Education for woman (1915)

17 BOSTON CONFERENCE ON PHYSICAL TRAINING — 1889  Purpose was "to bring to the attention of the general public and the leaders in the field the Swedish system."  Speakers also for the German system, the Sargent system, and Hitchcock's program

18 EDWARD HITCHCOCK (1861- 1911)  Anthropometrics— find the average, ideal college male using age, weight, height, chest girth, arm girth, forearm girth, lung capacity, and pull-ups

19 EDWARD HITCHCOCK  Program had an emphasis on health (AMHERST)  Required 30-minute class four times per week for all students  20 minutes for light gymnastics and marching as a class  10 minutes for individual apparatus work or sports

20 DUDLEY SARGENT (1879- 1919)  Apparatus—chest weights; chest pulleys; chest developers; leg machines, and rowing machines used in individualized programs

21 DUDLEY SARGENT— HARVARD  Anthropometrics—to find the ideal student, but mostly to establish individualized goals and programs for each student  No Swedish or German gymnastics  Sports, such as boxing, rowing, and baseball, were promoted

22 DUDLEY SARGENT  Sargent Normal School—1881— initially taught women at Harvard Annex and later founded a teacher training school for physical education  Harvard Summer School (1887-1932)— advanced teacher training program

23 DELPHINE HANNA — OBERLIN — (1885-1920)  1903—First woman professor of physical education  Anthropometrics of college women  Instructed Luther Gulick, Thomas Wood, Jay Nash, and Jesse Williams

24 WILLIAM ANDERSON  Chautauqua Summer School of Physical Education (1886- 1930s)  Brooklyn (Anderson) Normal School (1886- 1953)

25 ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION — 1885  Founded by William Anderson  Major issues between 1885-1900  Anthropometrics  Battle of the Systems

26 BATTLE OF THE SYSTEMS SYSTEMPURPOSE  German gymnasticsDeveloped individual abilities and healthy, strong youth for war or emergencies using apparatus  Swedish gymnasticsPromoted health, correct expression, and beauty of performance using exact movement patterns  Hitchcock’s system Emphasized health through required exercises with light apparatus  Sargent’s system Advocated hygienic, educative, recreative, and remedial aims through individualized exercises on apparatus  Association gymnastics Contributed to the development of the all-around man

27 EARLIER NAMES 1885 Association for the Advancement of Physical Education 1886 American Association for the Advancement of Physical Education 1903 American Physical Education Association 1937 American Association for Health and Physical Education 1938 American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation 1974 American Association for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance 1979 American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance

28 YOUNG MEN’S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION AND YOUNG WOMEN’S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION  YMCA founded in 1844 in England by George Williams  YMCA founded in 1851 in Boston  YWCA founded in 1866 in Boston by Mrs. Henry Durant

29 YMCA AND YWCA  1885—YMCA Training School in Springfield—to train YMCA directors  Purposes of the YMCA—to develop the all-around man (intellectual, physical, and spiritual)  Central School of Hygiene and Physical Education was the YWCA training school

30 PROFESSIONAL PUBLICATIONS  1896-1903 American Physical Education Review  1903-1930 APEA Review  1930-1938 Journal of Health and Physical Education  1938-1974 Journal of Health, Physical Education and Recreation  1975-1981 Journal of Physical Education and Recreation  1981-presentJournal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance

31 PROFESSIONAL PUBLICATIONS  1930-1979Research Quarterly  1980-presentResearch Quarterly for Exercise and Sport  1940-presentThe Physical Educator – Phi Epsilon Kappa  1963-present Quest – NAPEHE  1892-1896Physical Educator  1901-1928Journal of Physical Training – YMCA

32 DEVELOPMENT OF AMATEUR SPORTS  1868—New York Athletic Club founded  1888—Amateur Athletic Union started (AAU)  1852—First intercollegiate sport for men (Harvard and Yale in rowing)  1859—First intercollegiate baseball game

33 DEVELOPMENT OF AMATEUR SPORTS  1869—First intercollegiate football game  1896—First intercollegiate sport for women in basketball

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