Presentation on theme: "PSE4U. The Greeks and the Romans Greeks first civilization to actually document their sports Greeks first to derive an idea of how the pursuit of."— Presentation transcript:
The Greeks and the Romans Greeks first civilization to actually document their sports Greeks first to derive an idea of how the pursuit of physical activity could promote mental health Formed early Olympic games GREEK OLYMPICS Originally one event – the 200 yard stade = foot race More event added – wrestling, boxing, long jump, javelin First games held in 776BC
The Greeks and the Romans GREEK OLYMPICS continued.... Olympiad = 4 years Olympics were held at the beginning of each new Olympiad in homage to zeus A truce was called one month before games so that athletes could travel to Olympia through warring states without fear. This Olympic peace concept is still embraced today.
The Greeks and the Romans Mainland Greece was integrated into Roman empire between 50BC and AD 500 Romans continued with the Olympic tradition and adopted the Greek philosophy of sport. The developed the Latin saying “ a sound mind in a sound body”, reflecting that physical and mental health go hand in hand. Both had similar admiration of athletics and considered them to be an important part of a young man’s education. Roman’s favoured boxing, evolved into gladiator sport (gladiator vs. slave)
The Americas Aztecs (Native American people who dominated northern Mexico at the time of the Spanish conquest) played a game considered to be forerunner to modern basketball called TLACTLI object was to get a ball through a hoop without using your hands Sports important to Native Canadian culture also – like the Greeks, many athletic games were part of religious ceremonies Natives believed that physical strength helps spiritual strength
The Americas continued... Major contribution of Native Canadians was lacrosse Originally called baggataway More violent than current game – was played by warriors when it was peaceful The French called it la crosse due to the fact the sticks looked like crosses.
The Europeans The decline of the Roman Empire (about AD 500) caused athletic decline. Events were left to the elite. Sword fighting, horseback riding, jousting and archery were pursuits performed by those who had leisure time, not the average peasant. The idea that physical activity was an important part of life and education made a resurgence during the Renaissance (1400-1650) after the Greek and Roman culture was studied.
The Europeans continued... Renaissance Man Person who is equally good at and interested in multiple things Not unusual for intellects of that day to be scientists, poets, painters, historians and sculptors all at once. List began to include athletes as people began to acknowledge benefits of physical activity on body and mind.
The Europeans continued... In response to the changing view on physical activity, Italian physician began first childhood PE classes in 1420 New sports developed in Europe Scotland advanced two major sports that are still popular today: Golf in 1457 Curling in 1541 Versions of ice and field hockey began in France and England about this time Rough and tumble “folk football” (1400s) predecessor to such games as soccer, rugby and American football
Athletics in the Victorian Era World changed during the reign of Queen Victoria in England in 1800s Middle class evolved – was eager to join the upper class in leisure activities Middle class did not have the space for sports to take place – clubs, fields and arenas were created to house the activities The clubs evolved because the owners were able to charge spectator and admissions fees. Middle and lower class wanted to watch these spectator sports but due to little time for leisure activities there were clearly set rules and time limits put into place.
Athletics in the Victorian Era Another important factor in sport was the Victorian ideal of the gentleman athlete and amateur. Idea of fair play and sportsmanship was more important than winning. Amateurism – excluded lower classes Victorian sportsman also believed that sports was a reflection of life and that the same values that held true in sports held true in life – developed manly character and camaraderie amongst men. Belief that sports would harm women’s delicate constitution
Athletics in the Victorian Era Victorians believed that physical education and sport were a large part of a young man’s education “sports build character” PE classes and organized sport were implemented in the growing British public school system – Cricket, rugby, soccer, calisthenics, rowing, and netball Travelled to British Colonies (Canada, Australia, India, South Africa and New Zealand) implementing them into the colonies’ schools Growth was not restricted to British Colonies, US, Germany, France, and Russia all used the British model for PE.
Calisthenics Became a prominent method of keeping physically fit in Britain during Queen Victorian’s reign Calisthenics – means beauty and strength in Greek A series of vigorous exercises and stretches often done as a group sometimes set to music Series of movements, sometimes called drills, are the basis for many of the exercises that are still done in classes and gyms