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Chapter 4 Changing Philosophies for Sport, Fitness, and Physical Education Changing Philosophies for Sport, Fitness, and Physical Education.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 Changing Philosophies for Sport, Fitness, and Physical Education Changing Philosophies for Sport, Fitness, and Physical Education."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4 Changing Philosophies for Sport, Fitness, and Physical Education Changing Philosophies for Sport, Fitness, and Physical Education

2 Philosophical Influences in Early American Sport, Fitness, and Physical Education Gymnastic philosophies –Late 19 th century physical education dominated by system of gymnastics –German system by Freidrich Ludwig Jahn –Swedish system by Per Henrik Ling –Common theme between the two systems was nationalism –Each system was goal oriented for individual development Gymnastic philosophies –Late 19 th century physical education dominated by system of gymnastics –German system by Freidrich Ludwig Jahn –Swedish system by Per Henrik Ling –Common theme between the two systems was nationalism –Each system was goal oriented for individual development

3 Philosophical Influences in Early American Sport, Fitness, and Physical Education, cont’d Muscular Christianity –American philosopher, Ralph Waldo Emerson, contained a central place for sport and fitness –Participation in sport had moral benefits directly opposite to Puritan principles –Charles Kingsley, prominent cleric, promoted moral and fitness training –Arnoldism, based on Thomas Arnold, not Schwarzenegger, brought intellectual independence through sport and fitness Muscular Christianity –American philosopher, Ralph Waldo Emerson, contained a central place for sport and fitness –Participation in sport had moral benefits directly opposite to Puritan principles –Charles Kingsley, prominent cleric, promoted moral and fitness training –Arnoldism, based on Thomas Arnold, not Schwarzenegger, brought intellectual independence through sport and fitness

4 Philosophical Influences in Early American Sport, Fitness, and Physical Education, cont’d Masculinity-Femininity ideals –19 th Century views of masculinity and femininity were highly stereotyped –Mild forms of exercise was considered useful for women –Moderate forms of exercise was considered unlady-like –Girl sport programs were controlled by physical education departments –Full participation would have to wait for a later period Masculinity-Femininity ideals –19 th Century views of masculinity and femininity were highly stereotyped –Mild forms of exercise was considered useful for women –Moderate forms of exercise was considered unlady-like –Girl sport programs were controlled by physical education departments –Full participation would have to wait for a later period

5 Philosophical Influences in Early American Sport, Fitness, and Physical Education, cont’d Amateurism, Fair play, and the British ideals –Preparation of sport had a large influence upon British ideals, i.e., fair play –Amateurism was only for the wealthy, not receiving any coaching or much formal training –1896 Olympic Games reflected this concept of fair play and amateurism Amateurism, Fair play, and the British ideals –Preparation of sport had a large influence upon British ideals, i.e., fair play –Amateurism was only for the wealthy, not receiving any coaching or much formal training –1896 Olympic Games reflected this concept of fair play and amateurism

6 Philosophical Influences in Early American Sport, Fitness, and Physical Education, cont’d Character education through physical challenge –Character education development by Kurt Hahn (1934) –YMCA movement in England shared these beliefs –Outward Bound was developed based upon these principles –Became the whole school reform model for youths Character education through physical challenge –Character education development by Kurt Hahn (1934) –YMCA movement in England shared these beliefs –Outward Bound was developed based upon these principles –Became the whole school reform model for youths

7 School Sport and the New Physical Education American Progressive Education Theory (John Dewey, 1897) –Social reform through a child centered natural education –Students needed active participation vs. passive –Concept of the Unity of Man meant mental and physical together –Became the most important figure in the history of American education American Progressive Education Theory (John Dewey, 1897) –Social reform through a child centered natural education –Students needed active participation vs. passive –Concept of the Unity of Man meant mental and physical together –Became the most important figure in the history of American education

8 School Sport and the New Physical Education, cont’d Naturalism (Rousseau) –Help children grow up in perfect freedom (play concept) –Advocated games and sports to develop character Naturalism (Rousseau) –Help children grow up in perfect freedom (play concept) –Advocated games and sports to develop character

9 Philosophical Forces in Sport, Fitness, and Physical Education Since 1950 Human movement philosophy (Rudolph Laban) Humanistic philosophies in the ’s Play education (Siedentop, 1972, 1976, 1980) Sport education (Siedentop et al., 1986) Experiential and adventure education Fitness renaissance and the wellness movement Human movement philosophy (Rudolph Laban) Humanistic philosophies in the ’s Play education (Siedentop, 1972, 1976, 1980) Sport education (Siedentop et al., 1986) Experiential and adventure education Fitness renaissance and the wellness movement

10 Chapter 4 Changing Philosophies for Sport, Fitness, and Physical Education


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