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Historical Foundations

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Presentation on theme: "Historical Foundations"— Presentation transcript:

1 Historical Foundations
Chapter 4

2 Historical Foundations
Identify events that served as catalysts for physical education, exercise science, and sport’s growth. Identify some of the outstanding leaders in the fields. Discuss recent developments in physical education, exercise science, and sport. Draw implications from history of our fields for the future of physical education, exercise science, and sport

3 Sport History Emerged as a subdiscipline in the late 1960s
and early 1970s. “… field of scholarly inquiry with multiple and often intersecting foci, including exercise, the body, play, games, athletics, sports, physical recreations, health, and leisure.” (Struna) How has the past shaped sport and its experiences today? 1973: North American Society for Sport History held its first meeting.

4 Sample Areas of Study... How did urbanization influence the development of sports in America? How did the sports activities of Native Americans influence the recreational pursuits of the early colonists? How have Greek ideals influences the development of sportsmanship? How did segregation impact sports opportunities for blacks? What factors influenced the inclusion of physical education in the school curriculum?

5 Greece “Golden Age” of physical education and sport
Unity of the mind, body and spirit “Body beautiful” Arete – the pursuit of excellence Vital part of the education of every Greek boy National festivals Olympic Games

6 Rome Exercise for health and military purposes.
Greek gymnastics were introduced to Rome after the conquest of Greece but were not popular Rome did not believe in the “body beautiful” Preferred to be spectators rather than participants Preferred professionalism to amateurism. Exciting “blood sports”: gladiatorial combats and chariot races. “Duel to the death” or satisfaction of spectators.

7 Germany Period of nationalism - focus on development of strong citizens through school and community programs of physical education Physical education should be included in the school curriculum – programs emphasizes the development of strength Jahn ( ) – Turnverein movement to mold youth into strong, hardy citizens capable of overthrowing foreign control

8 Sweden Scientific study of physical education
Use anatomy and physiology to study the effects of physical education on the body Exercises use Swedish apparatus - Per Ling ( ) Design of gymnastic programs to meet specific individual needs 3 Types: Educational gymnastics, military gymnastics, and medical gymnastics Teachers of physical education must have foundational knowledge of the effects of exercise on the human body.

9 Great Britain Home of outdoor sports Maclaren (1920-1884)
Eager to make physical training a science; a system that was adopted by the British Army Health is more important than strength Exercise adapted to the individual Physical education essential in school curriculum Muscular Christianity Sport contributes to the development of moral character Reconciles sport and religion

10 PE in the U.S. Influenced by European ideals
Systems of gymnastics (exercises) Philosophies of physical education Growth of influence of Ancient Asian cultures Yoga Martial arts Relationships between the mind, body, and spirit

11 Colonial Period ( ) Colonists led an agrarian existence - physical activity through performing tasks essential to living and survival. Colonists brought sports with them from their native lands. Puritans denounced play as evil; recreational pursuits frowned upon. Reading, writing, and arithmetic in schools, not physical education. 2

12 National Period (1784-1861) Growth of private schools for females
Introduction of German gymnastics to schools 1852: First intercollegiate competition: a crew race between Harvard and Yale. Catherine Beecher ( ) Calisthenics performed to music One of the first to advocate for daily physical education Invention of baseball Horseracing, foot races, rowing, and gambling on sport events popular 3

13 Civil War Period until 1900 Turnverein societies continue to grow and include both girls and boys Dio Lewis Programs for the “weak and feeble” in society Training school for teachers in Boston Inclusion of gymnastic programs in the schools Nissen - Swedish Movement Cure grows in popularity and recognized for its inherent medical values YMCA established; international training school at Springfield College 4

14 Civil War Period until 1900 Growth of American sport in popularity
Tennis Golf Bowling Basketball (Naismith) Founding of forerunner of Amateur Athletic Association (AAU) Revival of Olympics in Athens Colleges and universities develop departments and expand programs

15 Civil War Period until 1900 Expansion of intercollegiate athletics
Abuses raise concerns Establishment of governing bodies Emphasis on teacher preparation, scientific basis of PE, diagnosis and prescription of activity Organized PE programs in elementary and secondary schools Founding of the forerunner of AAHPERD “Battle of the Systems” 6

16 Early Twentieth Century (1900s-1940s)
Extensive interscholastic programs - controversy over programs for girls Growth of intramural programs and emphasis on games and sports in our programs Increased concern for the physically underdeveloped in our society Playground movement Higher standards for teacher training (4 year preparation) NCAA established to monitor collegiate athletics 8

17 World War I ( ) Physical educators developed conditioning programs for armed forces . After the war, health statistics revealed that the nation was in poor shape (1/3 of men were physically unfit for armed service). Growth and upgrade of PE programs in schools following war due to legislation in some states. 10

18 Golden Twenties ( ) Move away from formal systems of gymnastics toward games, sports, and valuable recreation and leisure time. “New” physical education emphasized contribution to the total development of the individual; “education through the physical” vs. “education of the physical”. Calls for reform of collegiate athletics due to increasing professionalism, public entertainment, and commercialization. Women’s programs increase staff, activities, required participation, and facilities. 11

19 Depression Years ( ) Economic forces lead to cutbacks in PE programs and growth of recreational programs. Physical educators more involved in recreational programs for the unemployed. Growth of interscholastic, intercollegiate and women’s programs. Charles McCloy ( ) – advocated “education of the physical” and stressed the importance documenting results and measuring progress of using scientific data 12

20 Mid-twentieth Century (1940-1970)
Impact of WW II physical training programs Physical fitness movement President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports Athletics Increase opportunities for girls and women Increased interest in lifetime sports Sport programs below high school level increase Increased number of intramural programs 13

21 Mid-twentieth Century (1940-1970)
Professional preparation Colleges and universities increase programs for teachers American College of Sports Medicine (1954) National Athletic Trainers’ Association (1950) Programs for individuals with disabilities Special Olympics (1968) Research grows in importance and becomes increasingly specialized 14

22 Significant Recent Developments
Emergence of subdisciplines Disease prevention and health promotion Healthy People Objectives for the Nation Surgeon General’s Report on Physical Activity and Health Healthy People 2000 Healthy People 2010 Legislation promoting opportunities for girls and women, and people with disabilities Increased technology 15

23 School Physical Education
Recognition of the critical role school PE in achieving national health goals Fitness status and physical activity of children and youth is a concern Congressional support for high-quality, daily physical education Daily PE declines from 42% in 1991 to 28% in 2003. Only one state, Illinois, requires daily PE for all students, K-12 National Content Standards offer a national framework Emergence of new curricular models

24 Physical Fitness and Participation in Physical Activity
Expansion of the fitness movement and involvement in physical activity Shift from performance- to health-related fitness to an emphasis on moderate-intensity physical activity Physical inactivity recognized as a major health problem

25 The Growth of Sport Phenomenal growth of participation in sports at all levels Youth sports involve more than 25 million children Interscholastic sports involve more than 6 million boys and girls Trend toward early specialization

26 The Growth of Sport Intercollegiate sports involves nearly 400,000 athletes Growth of sport as “big business” in some institutions Growth of recreational sport leagues and amateur sports for adults of all ages Professional sports continue to expand including professional leagues for women

27 Girls and Women in Sport
Rapid growth since the passage of Title IX in 1972 Changes in governance of intercollegiate sports Challenges to Title IX Changes in physical education classes following passage of Title IX

28 Programs for Individuals with Disabilities
Federal Legislation PL Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act PL Education of All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 Amateur Sports Act of 1978 PL Americans with Disabilities Act Paralympics 17

29 Olympics Rebirth of the Olympics in 1896
Centennial Olympics celebrated in Atlanta in 1996 Politicization of the Olympic Games Evolving definitions of amateurism “Fairness” issues in the Olympics Addition of non-traditional sports Commercialization of the Olympics

30 Technology Computer technology and sophisticated research equipment
Has led to record-breaking achievements for elite athletes in nearly all sports Facility improvement Fitness tests data available in schools with addition of heart rate monitors

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