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Convoy Operations and TTPs Lessons Learned. Threat Unconventional (Irregular) Forces 1-2% of the Population Cannot identify until they attack They want.

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Presentation on theme: "Convoy Operations and TTPs Lessons Learned. Threat Unconventional (Irregular) Forces 1-2% of the Population Cannot identify until they attack They want."— Presentation transcript:

1 Convoy Operations and TTPs Lessons Learned

2 Threat Unconventional (Irregular) Forces 1-2% of the Population Cannot identify until they attack They want to kill Americans Looking for soft (easy) targets to attack Will avoid hard targets –Not seeking his or her own death

3 Threat (cont.) They are always watching and assessing every moment of every day They are intelligent –Know U.S. patches, designators, and equipment Use this knowledge to adapt their own TTPs

4 Enemy TTPs Sniper fire from building Random fire from building or clusters of buildings Buildings sometimes (often) near other civilians not involved in the attack RPG fire against convoys of soft skinned vehicles

5 Enemy TTPs (cont.) Explosive Devices –Command detonated on roads, bridges, intersections, overpasses or tunnels (choke points) –Pressure activated on roads in plastic bags or buried –Manually thrown From same direction vehicles From overpasses From side of road –Suicide Bombers Personnel Vehicle

6 Enemy TTPs (cont.) Disrupt U.S. convoys with vehicles –Prior to attack to slow us down Civilians block traffic in the road They know where we need to slow down –Hard Ball Road to Unimproved Surface –Intersections Linear Ambushes (command executed) –Observers advise ambush –Flares to trigger

7 Enemy TTPs (cont.) Small arms and RPG fire generally directed at lead or trail vehicle –RPG usually directed at trail vehicle

8 Enemy Goals Stop Your Movement Isolate Soft Targets From Hard Targets Kill Americans –Try to break our resolve –Make a political statement

9 Considerations Individual discipline at all times Weapon Orientation Security is everyone’s business Security at halts and work sites –Mounted vs. Dismounted OP’s and Security Vigilance on security and OP’s 360 degree security during movement, halts and work sites.

10 Considerations (cont.) Likely forms of contact –Direct Fire (Sniper, RPG, Ambush) –Indirect Fire (Mortars) –Obstacles (Man Made or Human) –Explosive Devices –Visual Contact THE ENEMY UNDERSTANDS AND RESPECTS FORCE!

11 Our TTPs Convoy Configuration –Support Platoon Leader or Scout Section Leader –Crew Served Weapon (Mounted) –Company Commander (Convoy Commander) –Element –Element Leader –1SG (Asst. Convoy Commander) –Element –Element Leader –Recovery –Recovery/Maint. OIC/NCOIC (XO, BMO, or BMS) –Rear Security

12 Our TTPs (cont.) Distribute crew served weapons throughout the convoy –Heavy toward front and rear Weapon Orientation If vehicle has hatch or ring mount, USE IT! –Even if you do not have crew served weapon –TC out of hatch with personal weapon

13 Our TTPs (cont.) Uniform Standards at all times –DCU Complete –LBV/E Complete –Flak Jacket/OTV –Helmet –Weapon at the ready

14 Our TTPs (cont.) Trail vehicle will provide rear security –M998 or M35 with personnel in the back –Orient weapon systems to the rear Each vehicle watches the “6” of the vehicle they are following

15 Our TTPs (cont.) Actions with a Breakdown –Key leader ID’s breakdown and reports to CO –CO halts or slows convoy based on situation –Key leader remains with breakdown –Recovery moves forward and assesses the situation with breakdown –If mission/tactical situation warrants, continue movement, then key leader becomes responsible for security, recovery, and continued movement to destination

16 Our TTPs (cont.) Actions at Short Halt –Halt in column or herringbone based on the situation (typically column in Iraq) –Driver remains in vehicle with engine running –TC dismounts and pulls local security (staggered) –If TC has crew served weapon, stay mounted and stagger orientation with other crew served weapon systems in convoy

17 Our TTPs (cont.) –Trail Element Pulls Rear Security –When resuming movement, TC re-mounts and maintains movement standards

18 Our TTPs (cont.) Actions on Direct Contact –RETURN FIRE - Extremely effective –Continue to move –Do Not Stop!! They want you to do this –If vehicle or personnel are hit, continue to move out of kill sack –Do not be afraid to shoot –Considerations Surface Danger Zones (SDZs) –3500+ m max range of 5.56mm –6000m max range of.50 cal

19 Our TTPs –Target area - anyone not stopping enemy activity is enabling that activity This makes returning fire morally right –RAMP principles: Return Fire with Aimed Fire Anticipate Attack Measured Response (Proportionality) Protect US Lives and Mission Essential Property with deadly force

20 Our TTPs (cont.) Indirect Fire/Explosive Devices –Continue to Move –Area is probably targeted by mortars, other explosive devices, or enemy personnel Look for M203 type grenade launchers, command detonation of devices, etc. –If you ID a target, engage it with accurate and deadly fire

21 Our TTPs (cont.) Obstacles (Man made) –ID as far away as possible Halt outside of kill sack –ID bypass or enemy activity in area –Determine if it is possible to pass thru or bypass –Anticipate and prepare for an attack either way –If you ID enemy, engage with aimed fire –Do Not Breech - Not your mission

22 Our TTPs (cont.) Obtacles (Human - Civilian or Protestors) –ID as far away as possible –If no bypass, then short halt –Based on size, execute call forward drill –CO moves forward with appropriate number of TCs, based on situation –TCs responsible for maintaining security and stand-off distance with human obstacle

23 Our TTPs (cont.) –Key Leader or CO directs ONE civilian (the leader) to approach the security line, ALONE Ensure all friendly personnel clear of crew served weapons and other lines of fire –CO gets Human Obstacle to displace or determines to force the convoy thru –You are not PSYOPS or CA - it is not your job to meet their demands - your job is to get them to displace, then keep moving

24 Our TTPs (cont.) –Remember, you are working to get them out of your way –Do not appease, feed, or give them anything –If they do not disband, you must force your way thru - tough to execute, but it is feasible –Warning shots may help, but they could incite a riot. –Smoke Grenades have worked very well so far –Remember - this obstacle may be linked to enemy activity - They want you to stop!

25 Our TTPs Visual Contact –If enemy poses a threat, anticipate an attack. Engage with aimed and deadly fires –Person on the Gun/Weapon System makes the decision to shoot or not. If they perceive a threat, they eliminate that threat

26 Other Considerations Ammunition Status –Red – rounds loaded –Yellow – magazine loaded, chamber clear –Green – magazines out, chamber clear Weapons Control Status –Hold – Engage only if engaged (threat) or ordered to do so –Tight – Engage if target is positively identified as enemy –Free – Engage unless target is positively identified as friendly.50 Cal, M240B, M249 TTP –Belt inserted, feed tray closed, bolt forward Do not carry weapons on anything but safe - you will transition at the moment of truth

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