Presentation on theme: "Approach Run PRECEPTS RALPH LINDEMAN Head Men’s and Women’s Track & Field Coach US Air Force Academy Assistant Coach (Hurdles, Vertical Jumps, Decathlon)"— Presentation transcript:
1 Approach Run PRECEPTS RALPH LINDEMAN Head Men’s and Women’s Track & Field Coach US Air Force Academy Assistant Coach (Hurdles, Vertical Jumps, Decathlon) USA Men’s Team, 2004 Olympic Games, Athens, Greece“Precepts,” not “concepts”; “Precepts” are guiding principles, laws, rules, tenets.
2 OBJECTIVES OF THE APPROACH RUN 1. Achieve maximum controllable velocity2. Acceleration t-h-r-u take-off (Perceived)3. Get vaulter to (precise) optimal take-off spot4. Vertical impulse at take-off(to achieve effective take-off vector)Flyfishing analogy– what happens upstream determines your success fishing (hatches, water conditions, etc.). The approach run is upstream from the vault.
3 MAXIMUM CONTROLLABLE VELOCITY Increase in approach run velocity of some magnitude will result in an increase in vault height.Research by Adamczewski and Dickwach showed that an increase in velocity of one meter per second resulted in an increase of approximately 0.5m in vault height.“Maximum Controllable Velocity” presents a dichotomy– how can it be “controllable” and “maximum” at the same time? Nevertheless, that is the objective! Objective must be to attain maximum velocity possible without disrupting the “vaulter-pole relationship.”
4 VELOCITY REQUIRED FOR HEIGHT ATTAINMENT Bar Clearance HeightVelocity Required5.80m (19’0”)9.1 m/s5.50m (18’0”)8.7 m/s5.20m (17’0”)8.4 m/s4.90m (16’0”)8.1 m/s4.60m (15’0”)7.8 m/s4.30m (14’0”)7.5 m/s4.00m (13’0”)7.2 m/s3.70m (12’0”)6.9 m/sInterpolated from Data From Studies by Dr Peter McGinnis, Jan 2003
5 ACCELERATION T-H-R-U TAKE-OFF “…velocity of the vaulter between 10m to 5m from the plant box is a key indicator of the vaulter’s potential.”--Bob Fraley,Complete Book of the Jumps, p.113, Human Kinetics (1995)
6 Why is “Acceleration through Take-off” PERCEIVED’? Because once the tip of the pole hits the back of the box (right after the take-off foot is planted), horizontal velocity decelerates.
7 ACCELERATION THROUGH TAKE-OFF CompetitorBestHtVelocity15-10m10-5mΔVJ Hartwig5.84m9.09 m/s9.45 m/s+.36T Mack5.74m8.96 m/s+.13N Hysong9.02 m/s+.07T Stevenson9.06 m/s9.23 m/s+.17D Miles8.92 m/s9.16 m/s+.24Best measured by setting “Speedtrap” beams across the runway from each other 5m, 10m & 15m from the box.From Data compiled by Dr Peter McGinnis, Men’s Pole Vault FinalUSA Track & Field Championships, June 22, 2002, Stanford, CA
8 ACCELERATION THROUGH TAKE-OFF CompetitorBestHtVelocity15-10m10-5mΔVS Dragila4.65m8.05 m/s8.39 m/s+.34M Sauer4.45m8.00 m/s8.22 m/s+.22M Mueller4.40m7.89 m/s8.11 m/sA Wildrick4.35m7.45 m/s7.50 m/s+.05K Suttle4.20m7.74 m/s+.24T O’Hara7.27 m/s7.41 m/s+.14Best measured by setting “Speedtrap” beams across the runway from each other 4m, 9m & 14m from the box.From Data compiled by Dr Peter McGinnis, Women’s Pole Vault FinalUSA Track & Field Championships, June 23, 2002, Stanford, CA
9 Common Causes of DECELERATION at Take-off Approach run may be too long;Maximum controllable velocity is reached to early in the run;Focus on the box transmits mixed signals and results in excessive steering (chopping, reaching strides)Ineffective plant technique disrupts efficient sprint mechanics
10 WHAT HAPPENS AT TAKE-OFF? 1. Horizontal momentumtransferred to pole;2. Vertical impulseadded to achievetake-off vector.
11 VERTICAL IMPULSE AT TAKE-OFF (To Achieve Effective Take-off Vector) Effective Take-off Vector is a result of (a) vertical impulse at take-off and (b) horizontal momentum generated from the approach run.
12 VERTICAL IMPULSE AT TAKE-OFF (To Achieve Effective Take-off Vector) “…Take-off angle relative to the ground should be as high as possible.” --Botcharnikov in his popular article, “Continuous Chain Model…” reprinted in Track Technique and Pole Vault Standard.* HANDS UP * EYES UP * CHEST UP *
13 VERTICAL IMPULSE AT TAKE-OFF (To Achieve Effective Take-off Vector) (example from Long Jump)* KNEE DRIVE FORWARD & UPWARD *
15 VERTICAL IMPULSE AT TAKE-OFF (To Achieve Effective Take-off Vector)
16 VERTICAL IMPULSE AT TAKE-OFF (To Achieve Effective Take-off Vector) Why do we want a vertical impulse at take-off? (i.e., why not rely on the release of the pole’s kinetic energy to give the vertical component? Because without jumping at take-off you cannot get adequate pole speed and the timing of the vaulter-pole relationship is disrupted.
17 VERTICAL IMPULSE AT TAKE-OFF (To Achieve Effective Take-off Vector) David Bussabarger refers to the take-off as “launching”.
18 INITIATING THE RUN (Overcoming Inertia) MechanicsWith (take-off) foot in contact with the runway, raise the pole to approximately 80° by taking a short step back with the other footSlight lean forward to give horizontal displacement to COM
19 INITIATING THE RUN (Overcoming Inertia) MechanicsBegin to “power” down the runwayNo “hops,” no “skips”Every approach run must start the same way(drills, short run, full run)“Rocker Step” sets pole angle, prepares the jumper for appropriate application of forces to overcome inertia.(“Okay to ‘walk-in’ or ‘jog-in’– as long as application of force is consistent between efforts).
20 RHYTHM OF THE RUNNot full and fast forces initially, but g-r-a-d-u-a-l-l-y lengthening strides and g-r-a-d-u-a-l-l-y increasing frequency.
21 RHYTHM OF THE RUN S-m-o-o-t-h acceleration pattern (velocity curve)Short Strides Longer StridesSlow Fast Faster Faster yet“First step / strongest step; last step / fastest step.”“Listen” to the rhythm of the run!
22 Two (2) Factors Affect Sprint Velocity SPRINT MECHANICSTwo (2) Factors Affect Sprint Velocity1. Stride Length2. Stride Frequency
23 SPRINT PHASES (during the Approach Run) 1. Acceleration Phase2. Transition Phase(NOTE: Several phases have been identified in he 100m dash; but the vault run is generally between 30-45m, and maximum velocity and maintenance phases are typically not reached).
24 SPRINT PHASES (during the Approach Run) 1. Acceleration Phase- Same mechanics as the sprinter;- Not same acceleration rate as the sprinter;- Phase is shorter distance / shorter durationthan the sprinter, i.e., reached in 25-35m.2. Transition Phase- Begins when vaulter reaches“maximum controllable velocity”- Lasts just a few strides (to penultimate stride)
25 ACCELERATION PHASE POSTURE Head upChest upHips underneath
26 ACCELERATION PHASE POSTURE Head upChest up(shoulders down results in relaxed upper body)Hips underneath (not “sitting)Knee up (knee drives up / applies forces down + back)Toe up (dorsiflexed)Heel up (high heel recovery)“Sprinting is pushing down and back.” --Tellez
27 ACCELERATION PHASE MECHANICS “Back-side Mechanics” PredominatePower from the extensors of hip and knee; (near) full extension of hip/knee/ankleKnee drives forward & upward applies force down & backGround contact is made slightly behind the COM
28 ACCELERATION PHASE MECHANICS “Back-side Mechanics” PredominatePower from the extensors of hip and knee; (near) full extension of hip/knee/ankleKnee drives forward & upward applies force down & backGround contact is made slightly behind the COM
30 TRANSITION PHASE Mechanics “Front-side Mechanics” dominate;Power from hip flexors & hamstringsFoot touches down slightly ahead of COMActive landings-- “feel the runway”Ground contact times decreasePosture becomes more upright (“running tall”)Heel recovery is higher (foot passes above opposite knee)“Feel the runway!” --Randy Huntington
31 TRANSITION PHASE Mechanics “Front-side Mechanics” dominate;Power from hip flexors & hamstringsFoot touches down slightly ahead of COMActive landings-- “feel the runway”Ground contact times decreasePosture becomes more upright (“running tall”)Heel recovery is higher (foot passes above opposite knee)“Feel the runway!” --Randy Huntington
32 POLE CARRY MECHANICS (During Acceleration Phase) Top hand at hipBottom hand in front of chestPole is pushed in advance of the vaulter, and in line with ground reaction forces.
33 POLE CARRY MECHANICS (during Transition Phase) G-r-a-d-u-a-lpole dropaccelerates with stride cadenceGravitational forces on the pole actually contribute to an increase in stride frequency.Weight of the pole makes gradual transition from vaulter’s top hand to bottom hand.Pole should be horizontal to runway at 3rd step out.
34 POLE CARRY MECHANICS Errors: Effect on Sprint Mechanics Premature pole dropCarrying (instead of pushing) the pole Leaning back (to support pole) Feet land ahead of COM Braking force applied Deceleration!
35 POLE CARRY MECHANICS Errors: Effect on Sprint Mechanics Horizontal sway (or vertical bounce) of poleDissipates application of forces (down & back into the track) Detracts from ability to accelerate efficiently
36 POLE CARRY MECHANICS Errors: Effect on Sprint Mechanics Pole carry too far back(i.e., top hand behind hip)Shoulders turn Dissipates application of forces Detracts from ability to accelerate efficiently
37 POLE CARRY MECHANICS Errors: Effect on Sprint Mechanics Raised ShouldersElevated shoulders negatively impact sprint mechanics and result in velocity lossRelaxed sprinting begins with shoulders
38 PREPARATION FOR TAKE-OFF (“Penultimate” Stride)
39 PREPARATION FOR TAKE-OFF What happens on “Penultimate” Stride?2nd to last (penultimate) stride is slightly longer–lowers the COM;Last stride is slightly shorter–“catches the COM on the the rise.”
40 PREPARATION FOR TAKE-OFF (“Penultimate” Stride)Next-to-last stride is(example from Long Jump)
41 METHODS OF TEACHING PENULTIMATE STRIDE TECHNIQUE “Flat foot” landing on penultimate stride, “flat foot” landing on final stride– Tom Tellez“Push-pull-plant” (with take-off leg) from 2nd-to-last stride– Randy Huntington
42 HOW CAN THE VAULTER PRACTICE PENULTIMATE STRIDE TECHNIQUE? Long Jump take-off drills.Hurdles
43 APPROACH RUN Length Management Methods Counting Strides (“Left’s” for R-handed)Gives vaulter rhythmic feedbackHelps identify phases of the approach run
44 APPROACH RUN Length Management Methods Checkmark Systems(Works in conjunction with counting strides)Start Mark (only mark the vaulter is aware of)Mid-mark (6 strides out)Take-off (not a physical mark)
45 APPROACH RUN Length Management Methods Value of “Mid-mark”Provides coach confirmation of “chopping,” or, more commonly, “reaching” during final strides of the approach run (“steering”)Provides coach confirmation of deceleration over the final strides of the approach runAllows coach to focus on the jump (rather than foot placement at take-off)
46 APPROACH RUN Length Management Methods SteeringEarly visual pick-up of the target (box) allows for more subtle stride length changes during the steering phase.Steering ability is trainable:hurdling with variable spacinglong jumping from variable approach run lengths
47 APPROACH RUN Length Management Methods Start Mark AdustmentsFeedback from previous approachesWind, runway surfaceConfidence, Motivation, Arousal“Feel”
48 APPROACH RUN Length Management Methods Start Mark Adustments(No more than)cm (4-12”) increments
49 when the sprinter (vaulter) What happens toStride Lengthwhen the sprinter (vaulter)decelerates?
50 when the sprinter (vaulter) What happens toStride Lengthwhen the sprinter (vaulter)decelerates?It increases!
51 Purpose of SPEED DEVELOPMENT DRILLS Affect Stride Length“Backside” mechanics (i.e., pushing down the runway)(Near) full extension of hip/knee/ankleAffect Stride Frequency“Frontside” mechanics[i.e., driving knee forward, generating negative foot speed (whip action of foreleg)]Affect “Acceleration thru Take-off”
52 Progression of SPEED DEVELOPMENT DRILLS “Mach Drills”A-marchA-skipDouble A’sContinuous A’s
53 Progression of SPEED DEVELOPMENT DRILLS Drills for Front-side/Back-Side MechanicsA-BoundsSpeed BoundsSpeed Bounds w/poleSpeed Bounds w/thigh weightsSpeed Bounds w/pole w/thigh weights
57 SPEED DEVELOPMENT Physiological Basis OBJECTIVETrain the Energy Systemused in Pole Vault competition
58 SPEED DEVELOPMENT Physiological Basis What Energy System is usedin the Pole Vault?Anaerobic/Alactic Energy System
59 SPEED DEVELOPMENT Physiological Basis Most Effective Method of Training the Anaerobic / Alactic Energy System:- Near-maximal velocity sprints- 3-8 seconds duration- Near full recovery, i.e., 1-3’
60 SPEED DEVELOPMENT Physiological Basis Why would we want to incorporate longer sprints (120’s, 150’s, 200’s) into vaulter’s training ?Speed endurance work improves efficiency of metabolic system, reducing recovery time between vaults;Longer sprints allow more conscious attention to developing efficient sprinting mechanics;Improves “general fitness”—energy efficiency, weight management, etc.Improves cardiovascular efficiency thru increased capillarization
61 SPEED DEVELOPMENT Methods Acceleration Sprints10-40m from standing start(both) with and without pole1’ – 3’ recoverymeters per session
62 SPEED DEVELOPMENT Methods Speed Development Repetitions“flying sprints” of 30-60m w/1-3 seconds at maximum velocity(both) with and without pole4’ – 6’ recoverymeters per session
63 SPEED DEVELOPMENT Methods Speed Endurance Repetitions80-200mwithout pole3-5’ recoverym meters per session
64 SPEED DEVELOPMENT (Other Methods) Resisted-Sprinting(<10% loss in velocity)(Slight) uphill sprintsSled-pullingParachute-resisted sprints
65 SPEED DEVELOPMENT (Other Methods) Assisted-Sprinting(<10% gain in velocity)(Slight) downhill sprintsWind-aided sprints(for the vaulter, sprints w/o the poleare actually “assisted” sprints!)
66 SPEED DEVELOPMENT (Other Methods) Pole Sprints30-60m on the track(i.e., off the runway)w/ or w/o planting action
67 SPEED DEVELOPMENT NEUROMUSCULAR BASIS When in the training cycle does the vaulter work on speed development?Throughout the macrocycle (training year)!Frequently in each mesocycle (training phase)At least once in each microcycle (weekly plan)At the beginning of a training session, i.e., immediately after the warm-up
68 SPEED DEVELOPMENT NEUROMUSCULAR BASIS Fatigue cannot be allowed tobecome a factor inspeed development training
69 SPEED DEVELOPMENT NEUROMUSCULAR BASIS Although physiological recovery isimmediate (i.e., just a few minutes),neuromuscular recovery takes48 hours (or longer)
70 SPEED DEVELOPMENT NEUROMUSCULAR BASIS Always finish a speed development workout with Pole Sprints— transfers “neural patterns learned” to vaulting.