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Approach Run PRECEPTS RALPH LINDEMAN Head Men’s and Women’s Track & Field Coach US Air Force Academy Assistant Coach (Hurdles, Vertical Jumps, Decathlon)

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Presentation on theme: "Approach Run PRECEPTS RALPH LINDEMAN Head Men’s and Women’s Track & Field Coach US Air Force Academy Assistant Coach (Hurdles, Vertical Jumps, Decathlon)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Approach Run PRECEPTS RALPH LINDEMAN Head Men’s and Women’s Track & Field Coach US Air Force Academy Assistant Coach (Hurdles, Vertical Jumps, Decathlon) USA Men’s Team, 2004 Olympic Games, Athens, Greece

2 OBJECTIVES OF THE APPROACH RUN 1. Achieve maximum controllable velocity 2. Acceleration t-h-r-u take-off (Perceived) 3. Get vaulter to (precise) optimal take-off spot 4. Vertical impulse at take-off (to achieve effective take-off vector) (to achieve effective take-off vector)

3 MAXIMUM CONTROLLABLE VELOCITY Increase in approach run velocity of some magnitude will result in an increase in vault height. Increase in approach run velocity of some magnitude will result in an increase in vault height. Research by Adamczewski and Dickwach showed that an increase in velocity of one meter per second resulted in an increase of approximately 0.5m in vault height. Research by Adamczewski and Dickwach showed that an increase in velocity of one meter per second resulted in an increase of approximately 0.5m in vault height.

4 VELOCITY REQUIRED FOR HEIGHT ATTAINMENT Bar Clearance Height Velocity Required 5.80m (19’0”) 9.1 m/s 5.50m (18’0”) 8.7 m/s 5.20m (17’0”) 8.4 m/s 4.90m (16’0”) 8.1 m/s 4.60m (15’0”) 7.8 m/s 4.30m (14’0”) 7.5 m/s 4.00m (13’0”) 7.2 m/s 3.70m (12’0”) 6.9 m/s Interpolated from Data From Studies by Dr Peter McGinnis, Jan 2003

5 ACCELERATION T-H-R-U TAKE-OFF “…velocity of the vaulter between 10m to 5m from the plant box is a key indicator of the vaulter’s potential.” --Bob Fraley, --Bob Fraley, Complete Book of the Jumps, p.113, Human Kinetics (1995) Complete Book of the Jumps, p.113, Human Kinetics (1995)

6 Why is “Acceleration through Take-off” PERCEIVED’?

7 ACCELERATION THROUGH TAKE-OFF CompetitorBestHtVelocity15-10mVelocity10-5m ΔVΔVΔVΔV J Hartwig 5.84m 9.09 m/s 9.45 m/s +.36 T Mack 5.74m 8.96 m/s 9.09 m/s +.13 N Hysong 5.74m 9.02 m/s 9.09 m/s +.07 T Stevenson 5.74m 9.06 m/s 9.23 m/s +.17 D Miles 5.74m 8.92 m/s 9.16 m/s +.24 From Data compiled by Dr Peter McGinnis, Men’s Pole Vault Final USA Track & Field Championships, June 22, 2002, Stanford, CA

8 ACCELERATION THROUGH TAKE-OFF CompetitorBestHtVelocity15-10mVelocity10-5m ΔVΔVΔVΔV S Dragila 4.65m 8.05 m/s 8.39 m/s +.34 M Sauer 4.45m 8.00 m/s 8.22 m/s +.22 M Mueller 4.40m 7.89 m/s 8.11 m/s +.22 A Wildrick 4.35m 7.45 m/s 7.50 m/s +.05 K Suttle 4.20m 7.50 m/s 7.74 m/s +.24 T O’Hara 4.20m 7.27 m/s 7.41 m/s +.14 From Data compiled by Dr Peter McGinnis, Women’s Pole Vault Final USA Track & Field Championships, June 23, 2002, Stanford, CA

9 Common Causes of DECELERATION at Take-off Approach run may be too long; Approach run may be too long; Maximum controllable velocity is reached to early in the run; Maximum controllable velocity is reached to early in the run; Focus on the box transmits mixed signals and results in excessive steering (chopping, reaching strides) Focus on the box transmits mixed signals and results in excessive steering (chopping, reaching strides) Ineffective plant technique disrupts efficient sprint mechanics Ineffective plant technique disrupts efficient sprint mechanics

10 WHAT HAPPENS AT TAKE-OFF? 1. Horizontal momentum transferred to pole; transferred to pole; 2. Vertical impulse added to achieve take-off vector.

11 VERTICAL IMPULSE AT TAKE-OFF (To Achieve Effective Take-off Vector) Effective Take-off Vector is a result of (a) vertical impulse at take-off and (b) horizontal momentum generated from the approach run.

12 VERTICAL IMPULSE AT TAKE-OFF (To Achieve Effective Take-off Vector) * HANDS UP * EYES UP * CHEST UP *

13 VERTICAL IMPULSE AT TAKE-OFF (To Achieve Effective Take-off Vector) (example from Long Jump) * KNEE DRIVE FORWARD & UPWARD *

14 VERTICAL IMPULSE AT TAKE-OFF (To Achieve Effective Take-off Vector) * KNEE DRIVE FORWARD & UPWARD *

15 VERTICAL IMPULSE AT TAKE-OFF (To Achieve Effective Take-off Vector)

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18 INITIATING THE RUN (Overcoming Inertia) Mechanics Mechanics With (take-off) foot in contact with the runway, raise the pole to approximately 80° by taking a short step back with the other foot With (take-off) foot in contact with the runway, raise the pole to approximately 80° by taking a short step back with the other foot Slight lean forward to give horizontal displacement to COM Slight lean forward to give horizontal displacement to COM

19 INITIATING THE RUN (Overcoming Inertia) Mechanics Begin to “power” down the runway Begin to “power” down the runway No “hops,” no “skips” No “hops,” no “skips” Every approach run must start the same way Every approach run must start the same way (drills, short run, full run) (drills, short run, full run)

20 RHYTHM OF THE RUN

21 S-m-o-o-t-h acceleration pattern (velocity curve) Short Strides  Longer Strides Slow  Fast  Faster  Faster yet

22 SPRINT MECHANICS Two (2) Factors Affect Sprint Velocity 1. Stride Length 2. Stride Frequency

23 SPRINT PHASES (during the Approach Run) 1. Acceleration Phase 2. Transition Phase (NOTE: Several phases have been identified in he 100m dash; but the vault run is generally between 30-45m, and maximum velocity and maintenance phases are typically not reached).

24 SPRINT PHASES (during the Approach Run) 1.Acceleration Phase - Same mechanics as the sprinter; - Not same acceleration rate as the sprinter; - Phase is shorter distance / shorter duration than the sprinter, i.e., reached in 25-35m. than the sprinter, i.e., reached in 25-35m. 2.Transition Phase - Begins when vaulter reaches “maximum controllable velocity” “maximum controllable velocity” - Lasts just a few strides (to penultimate stride)

25 ACCELERATION PHASE POSTURE Head upHead up Chest upChest up Hips underneathHips underneath

26 ACCELERATION PHASE POSTURE Head up Head up Chest up Chest up (shoulders down results in relaxed upper body) Hips underneath (not “sitting) Hips underneath (not “sitting) Knee up (knee drives up / applies forces down + back) Knee up (knee drives up / applies forces down + back) Toe up (dorsiflexed) Toe up (dorsiflexed) Heel up (high heel recovery) Heel up (high heel recovery)

27 ACCELERATION PHASE MECHANICS “Back-side Mechanics” Predominate “Back-side Mechanics” Predominate Power from the extensors of hip and knee; (near) full extension of hip/knee/ankle Power from the extensors of hip and knee; (near) full extension of hip/knee/ankle Knee drives forward & upward-- applies force down & back Knee drives forward & upward-- applies force down & back Ground contact is made slightly behind the COM Ground contact is made slightly behind the COM

28 ACCELERATION PHASE MECHANICS “Back-side Mechanics” Predominate “Back-side Mechanics” Predominate Power from the extensors of hip and knee; (near) full extension of hip/knee/ankle Power from the extensors of hip and knee; (near) full extension of hip/knee/ankle Knee drives forward & upward-- applies force down & back Knee drives forward & upward-- applies force down & back Ground contact is made slightly behind the COM Ground contact is made slightly behind the COM

29 TRANSITION PHASE Mechanics

30 “Front-side Mechanics” dominate; “Front-side Mechanics” dominate; Power from hip flexors & hamstrings Power from hip flexors & hamstrings Foot touches down slightly ahead of COM Foot touches down slightly ahead of COM Active landings-- “feel the runway” Active landings-- “feel the runway” Ground contact times decrease Ground contact times decrease Posture becomes more upright (“running tall”) Posture becomes more upright (“running tall”) Heel recovery is higher (foot passes above opposite knee) Heel recovery is higher (foot passes above opposite knee)

31 TRANSITION PHASE Mechanics “Front-side Mechanics” dominate; “Front-side Mechanics” dominate; Power from hip flexors & hamstrings Power from hip flexors & hamstrings Foot touches down slightly ahead of COM Foot touches down slightly ahead of COM Active landings-- “feel the runway” Active landings-- “feel the runway” Ground contact times decrease Ground contact times decrease Posture becomes more upright (“running tall”) Posture becomes more upright (“running tall”) Heel recovery is higher (foot passes above opposite knee) Heel recovery is higher (foot passes above opposite knee)

32 POLE CARRY MECHANICS (During Acceleration Phase) Top hand at hip Top hand at hip Bottom hand in front of chest Bottom hand in front of chest Pole is pushed in advance of the vaulter, and in line with ground reaction forces. Pole is pushed in advance of the vaulter, and in line with ground reaction forces.

33 POLE CARRY MECHANICS (during Transition Phase) G-r-a-d-u-a-l pole drop accelerates with stride cadence

34 POLE CARRY MECHANICS Errors: Effect on Sprint Mechanics Premature pole drop Carrying (instead of pushing) the pole  Leaning back (to support pole)  Feet land ahead of COM  Braking force applied  Deceleration!

35 POLE CARRY MECHANICS Errors: Effect on Sprint Mechanics Horizontal sway (or vertical bounce) of pole Dissipates application of forces (down & back into the track)  Detracts from ability to accelerate efficiently

36 POLE CARRY MECHANICS Errors: Effect on Sprint Mechanics Pole carry too far back (i.e., top hand behind hip) Shoulders turn  Dissipates application of forces  Detracts from ability to accelerate efficiently

37 POLE CARRY MECHANICS Errors: Effect on Sprint Mechanics Raised Shoulders Elevated shoulders negatively impact sprint mechanics and result in velocity loss Elevated shoulders negatively impact sprint mechanics and result in velocity loss Relaxed sprinting begins with shoulders Relaxed sprinting begins with shoulders

38 PREPARATION FOR TAKE-OFF (“Penultimate” Stride)

39 PREPARATION FOR TAKE-OFF What happens on “Penultimate” Stride? 2 nd to last (penultimate) stride is slightly longer–lowers the COM; 2 nd to last (penultimate) stride is slightly longer–lowers the COM; Last stride is slightly shorter– Last stride is slightly shorter– “catches the COM on the the rise.” “catches the COM on the the rise.”

40 PREPARATION FOR TAKE-OFF (“Penultimate” Stride) Next-to-last stride is (example from Long Jump)

41 METHODS OF TEACHING PENULTIMATE STRIDE TECHNIQUE “Flat foot” landing on penultimate stride, “flat foot” landing on final stride “Flat foot” landing on penultimate stride, “flat foot” landing on final stride – Tom Tellez “Push-pull-plant” (with take-off leg) from 2 nd -to-last stride “Push-pull-plant” (with take-off leg) from 2 nd -to-last stride – Randy Huntington – Randy Huntington

42 HOW CAN THE VAULTER PRACTICE PENULTIMATE STRIDE TECHNIQUE? Long Jump take-off drills. Long Jump take-off drills. Hurdles Hurdles

43 APPROACH RUN Length Management Methods Counting Strides (“Left’s” for R-handed) Counting Strides (“Left’s” for R-handed) Gives vaulter rhythmic feedback Gives vaulter rhythmic feedback Helps identify phases of the approach run Helps identify phases of the approach run

44 APPROACH RUN Length Management Methods Checkmark Systems (Works in conjunction with counting strides) Start Mark (only mark the vaulter is aware of) Start Mark (only mark the vaulter is aware of) Mid-mark (6 strides out) Mid-mark (6 strides out) Take-off (not a physical mark) Take-off (not a physical mark)

45 APPROACH RUN Length Management Methods Value of “Mid-mark” Provides coach confirmation of “chopping,” or, more commonly, “reaching” during final strides of the approach run (“steering”) Provides coach confirmation of “chopping,” or, more commonly, “reaching” during final strides of the approach run (“steering”) Provides coach confirmation of deceleration over the final strides of the approach run Provides coach confirmation of deceleration over the final strides of the approach run Allows coach to focus on the jump (rather than foot placement at take-off) Allows coach to focus on the jump (rather than foot placement at take-off)

46 APPROACH RUN Length Management Methods Steering Early visual pick-up of the target (box) allows for more subtle stride length changes during the steering phase. Steering ability is trainable: hurdling with variable spacing hurdling with variable spacing long jumping from variable approach run lengths long jumping from variable approach run lengths

47 APPROACH RUN Length Management Methods Start Mark Adustments Feedback from previous approaches Feedback from previous approaches Wind, runway surface Wind, runway surface Confidence, Motivation, Arousal Confidence, Motivation, Arousal “Feel” “Feel”

48 APPROACH RUN Length Management Methods Start Mark Adustments (No more than) cm (4-12”) increments

49 What happens to Stride Length when the sprinter (vaulter) decelerates?

50 What happens to Stride Length when the sprinter (vaulter) decelerates? It increases!

51 Purpose of SPEED DEVELOPMENT DRILLS Affect Stride Length Affect Stride Length “Backside” mechanics (i.e., pushing down the runway) “Backside” mechanics (i.e., pushing down the runway) (Near) full extension of hip/knee/ankle Affect Stride Frequency Affect Stride Frequency “Frontside” mechanics “Frontside” mechanics [i.e., driving knee forward, generating negative foot speed (whip action of foreleg)] [i.e., driving knee forward, generating negative foot speed (whip action of foreleg)] Affect “Acceleration thru Take-off” Affect “Acceleration thru Take-off”

52 Progression of SPEED DEVELOPMENT DRILLS “Mach Drills” A-march A-march A-skip A-skip Double A’s Double A’s Continuous A’s Continuous A’s

53 Progression of SPEED DEVELOPMENT DRILLS Drills for Front-side/Back-Side Mechanics A-Bounds A-Bounds Speed Bounds Speed Bounds Speed Bounds w/pole Speed Bounds w/pole Speed Bounds w/thigh weights Speed Bounds w/thigh weights Speed Bounds w/pole w/thigh weights Speed Bounds w/pole w/thigh weights

54 Why Bounding?

55 Progression of SPEED DEVELOPMENT DRILLS Drills for Acceleration thru Take-off 2-step Take-off Drill 2-step Take-off Drill Run-Run-Run-Bound w/Pole Plant Run-Run-Run-Bound w/Pole Plant Sprint to Rope Plant Sprint to Rope Plant Speed Bounds to Rope Plant Speed Bounds to Rope Plant

56 Progression of SPEED DEVELOPMENT DRILLS

57 SPEED DEVELOPMENT Physiological Basis OBJECTIVE Train the Energy System used in Pole Vault competition

58 SPEED DEVELOPMENT Physiological Basis What Energy System is used in the Pole Vault? Anaerobic/Alactic Energy System

59 SPEED DEVELOPMENT Physiological Basis Most Effective Method of Training the Anaerobic / Alactic Energy System: - Near-maximal velocity sprints seconds duration - Near full recovery, i.e., 1-3’

60 SPEED DEVELOPMENT Physiological Basis Why would we want to incorporate longer sprints (120’s, 150’s, 200’s) into vaulter’s training ? Speed endurance work improves efficiency of metabolic system, reducing recovery time between vaults; Speed endurance work improves efficiency of metabolic system, reducing recovery time between vaults; Longer sprints allow more conscious attention to developing efficient sprinting mechanics; Longer sprints allow more conscious attention to developing efficient sprinting mechanics; Improves “general fitness”—energy efficiency, weight management, etc. Improves “general fitness”—energy efficiency, weight management, etc. Improves cardiovascular efficiency thru increased capillarization Improves cardiovascular efficiency thru increased capillarization

61 SPEED DEVELOPMENT Methods Acceleration Sprints 10-40m from standing start 10-40m from standing start (both) with and without pole (both) with and without pole 1’ – 3’ recovery 1’ – 3’ recovery meters per session meters per session

62 SPEED DEVELOPMENT Methods Speed Development Repetitions “flying sprints” of 30-60m w/1-3 seconds at maximum velocity “flying sprints” of 30-60m w/1-3 seconds at maximum velocity (both) with and without pole (both) with and without pole 4’ – 6’ recovery 4’ – 6’ recovery meters per session meters per session

63 SPEED DEVELOPMENT Methods Speed Endurance Repetitions m m without pole without pole 3-5’ recovery 3-5’ recovery m meters per session m meters per session

64 SPEED DEVELOPMENT (Other Methods) Resisted-Sprinting (<10% loss in velocity) (Slight) uphill sprints (Slight) uphill sprints Sled-pulling Sled-pulling Parachute-resisted sprints Parachute-resisted sprints

65 SPEED DEVELOPMENT (Other Methods) Assisted-Sprinting (<10% gain in velocity) (Slight) downhill sprints (Slight) downhill sprints Wind-aided sprints Wind-aided sprints (for the vaulter, sprints w/o the pole (for the vaulter, sprints w/o the pole are actually “assisted” sprints!) are actually “assisted” sprints!)

66 SPEED DEVELOPMENT (Other Methods) Pole Sprints 30-60m on the track 30-60m on the track (i.e., off the runway) (i.e., off the runway) w/ or w/o planting action w/ or w/o planting action

67 SPEED DEVELOPMENT NEUROMUSCULAR BASIS When in the training cycle does the vaulter work on speed development? Throughout the macrocycle (training year)! Throughout the macrocycle (training year)! Frequently in each mesocycle (training phase) Frequently in each mesocycle (training phase) At least once in each microcycle (weekly plan) At least once in each microcycle (weekly plan) At the beginning of a training session, i.e., immediately after the warm-up At the beginning of a training session, i.e., immediately after the warm-up

68 SPEED DEVELOPMENT NEUROMUSCULAR BASIS Fatigue cannot be allowed to Fatigue cannot be allowed to become a factor in become a factor in speed development training speed development training

69 SPEED DEVELOPMENT NEUROMUSCULAR BASIS Although physiological recovery is Although physiological recovery is immediate (i.e., just a few minutes), immediate (i.e., just a few minutes), neuromuscular recovery takes neuromuscular recovery takes 48 hours (or longer) 48 hours (or longer)

70 SPEED DEVELOPMENT NEUROMUSCULAR BASIS Always finish a speed development workout with Pole Sprints— transfers “neural patterns learned” to vaulting. Always finish a speed development workout with Pole Sprints— transfers “neural patterns learned” to vaulting.

71 QUESTIONS?

72 RALPH LINDEMAN Head Men’s and Women’s Track & Field Coach U.S AIR FORCE ACADEMY Office Phone: (719)


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