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High Jump Fundamentals Danielle Dobias Oak Park and River Forest High School.

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Presentation on theme: "High Jump Fundamentals Danielle Dobias Oak Park and River Forest High School."— Presentation transcript:

1 High Jump Fundamentals Danielle Dobias Oak Park and River Forest High School

2 Jumping Styles Prior to The Fosbury Flop, the technique used to get over the bar was a straddle or scissor technique. The flop was highlighted at the 1968 Olympics when Dick Fosbury used it to win the gold medal. The biggest difference between the two jumping styles was that with the flop, the jumper goes over the bar upside down, facing the sky. This allows the jumper to bend their back which lowers the center of mass. The straddle technique can be quite useful as a training tool which I will touch on later.

3 “Identifying” a High Jumper Tall and thin Ability to dunk; preferably off one foot Fearless Good body control Body awareness Basketball players/Gymnasts/Divers

4 Two types of jumpers Speed jumper Long legs Over 6 feet tall Thin; low muscle tone Fast Stays tall at take-off Power jumper Under 6 feet tall Muscular Powerful Slow Gets low at take-off

5 Determining take-off foot Tell the jumper to stand with feet together Stand behind him/her and push them hard enough that they need to take a step forward. The foot they step forward with is the stronger foot therefore determining the take-off foot. Another option is asking the jumper to do a layup; pay attention to what take-off foot is used

6 Finding a Mark Have jumper start at their take-off spot just inside the near standard and approximately an arms length out from the bar Set a cone 20 feet to the right of the standard and 65 feet back to act as a target for the jumper to run towards Run a “reverse-J” back toward what their real starting point would be. Count off 10 steps as they stride away from the bar at an easy sprint and mark their 10th step

7 J- Approach

8 Finding a Mark (continued) Do this several times and mark the 10 th step each time to find the average mark of the tenth step Use a bungee and have the jumper take a few jumps with full approach Pay close attention to approach and make adjustments to the mark You will see things the athletes cannot and they will feel things you cannot, so make sure to talk through each potential mark before making changes

9 Elements of the Jump Straightaway The jumper should be very tall while running the straightaway First five or so steps in approach should be bounds During the straightaway jumper should be looking straight ahead

10 Problems with Straightaway Problem #1 Jumper stands tall at their mark and as soon as they begin their approach they hunch over Solution #1 Add slight backbends to jumpers pre-jump routine If jumper hunches during approach work blow a whistle and have them start approach over Problem #2 In the last step of the straightaway the jumper crosses the outside foot over the inside foot which leads them cut straight into the bar Solution #2 Work on softening the curve; may need to move it out or in depending on how the jumper is transitioning into the turn Consider starting with opposite foot taking the first step and adding/removing a step

11 Problems with Straightaway Problem #3 The jumper stares at the bar for the entire approach; takes off at the middle of the bar, which forces them to clear over the highest side of the bar instead of the middle of the bar which is lowest Solution #3 Jumper should look straight ahead during the straightaway and at the farthest end of the bar once curve is initiated

12 Elements of the Jump Curve Momentum must be developed through the straightaway Cutting and stepping out will decrease the momentum gained during the straightaway The jumper should begin an inward lean at first step into the curve Outside arm works across body to prepare for rotation Inside arm reacts and pushes elbow backward Force on feet should be pushing out and not down, allowing the jumper to maintain traction while leaning into the bar Jumper should make eye contact with far standard once they transition from the straightaway to the curve

13 Problems with Curve Problem #1 Jumper cuts in or steps out when beginning the curve Solution #1 Use cones to guide the jumper through the curve Rub chalk on bottom of spikes to show the imprint of the feet throughout the approach Practice shorter approaches so curve is more of the focus

14 Elements of the Jump Penultimate Step The penultimate step is the last step before the plant. It is critical to the athlete’s ability to get as vertical as possible. The sooner the take-off leg is planted, the better position the jumper will be in to attain maximum vertical velocity. While the jumper is pushing into the penultimate step, both arms should be pulling back behind the body. The penultimate step should be the longest step

15 Problems with Penultimate Problem #1 Jumper is dragging his trail leg after inside foot is planted Solution #1 Jumper is over-stretching the penultimate step and may need to move mark up slightly or increase/decrease speed

16 Elements of the Jump Take-off Step Should be the shortest step in approach Foot should be 30 degree angle to the bar Your takeoff step should occur in front of your body’s center of mass, which will help in creating a vertical lift Once your plant foot is in contact with the ground the athletes body should move from a lean to more of a vertical stance. Slight lowering of hips The knee of your inside leg should explode up and stay up until back starts to pass over the bar The knee lift will also help begin the rotation of your body so that your back will face the bar at clearance. Jumper should have outside arm begin to cross the body as the elbow of inside arm is driving back which will assist in rotation This rotation will occur if the momentum is kept on the curve The jumper should be jumping straight upward

17 Problems with Take-off Problem #1 Jumper is leaning into the bar after plant Solution #1 Instruct jumper to get upright after making initial contact with plant foot Problem #2 Jumper is pounding plant foot into the ground before take-off Solution #2 Heel should strike first and roll through the foot off the heel and off the toe Problem #3 Jumper is not using arms Solution #3 Approach work emphasizing arms in all parts elements of the jump

18 Arm Position

19 Elements of the Jump In Flight Goal is to clear the bar Body must rotate in two ways Horizontally to get parallel to the bar To the side so that the back is facing the bar As the jumper approaches the bar the body needs to arch so the hips are high as possible Once the head begins to tilt back, feet and knees should be close together and not splayed over the bar. As the hips clear the bar, chin should begin to tuck to help lift legs into a straight up position. Athlete’s upper back should be first part of body to make contact with the pit This slide adapted from:

20 Problems In-Flight Problem #1 Jumper is riding the bar and never getting center of mass over the bar Solution #1 Jumper needs to be more erect on take-off and arch their back more in air Jumper needs to hold knee-drive longer Problem #2 Jumper is over-rotating and hitting bar with outside hip Solution #2 Jumper needs to

21 Problems In-Flight Problem #3 Ineffective bar clearance Solution #3 Jumper needs to keep knees together when in-flight to slow down the rotation which allows the jumper more time to un-arch. If knees are far apart they have to cross the bar right after the hips which doesn’t leave enough time for them to un-arch. The timing of the un-arch is critical to the leg and foot clearance of the bar. Problem #4 Jumper is sitting on the bar Solution #4 Jumper either has straight legs over the bar, an incomplete arch, or raises the head prematurely which enables them to hit the bar although the center of mass is over the bar

22 Hip Position

23 Warm-Ups Back flips on pit Back jumps over bar Scissor jumps (both sides) Knee drives Box jumps Curve runs 3 and 5 step approaches Approaches with tennis balls

24 Training Plyometrics Core Yoga Stairs Spin workouts Pool workouts Basketball 50 meter sprints Towel runs Box jumps Hurdle Work

25 Plyometrics Ankle jumps quick, on balls of feet Vertical jumps quick, repeated, rebounds Power skipping exaggerated skip with knee drive Tuck jumps repeated jumps for distance Front/Lateral obstacle jumps gradually increase distance between obstacles Single- leg hops repeated on one-leg for distance Squat jumps hands on head, repeat squat jumps starting in squat position


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