Presentation on theme: "5/1/20151. 2 Adaptations of Living Things 5/1/20153 Life today is a combination of 2 components: The Evolutionary Process (change over time) Immediate."— Presentation transcript:
2 Adaptations of Living Things
5/1/20153 Life today is a combination of 2 components: The Evolutionary Process (change over time) Immediate interactions with the environment To change, an animal has to survive long enough to reproduce.
5/1/20154 Advantages of Sexual Reproduction New individuals will have a variety of chromosomes Able to adapt to a changing environment Characteristics combined from both parents Variations allows individuals to move into new environments
5/1/20155 Adaptations Adaptations usually occur because a gene mutates or changes by accident(or in a test tube) ! Some mutations help an animal or plant survive better than others in the species without the mutation. –Intelligence, speed, eyesight, good looks(like Mr. Wiessner)
5/1/20156 A Word on animals… All animals have adaptations that fit their environments. An adaptation is a part of an animal's body or way that an animal behaves that helps it survive.
5/1/20157 Types of Adaptations Structural (physical features of an organism like the bill on a bird or the fur on a bear). Behavioral (things organisms do to survive, like bird calls and migration).
5/1/20158 Structural - Why do birds have different beaks???? Why do you have fingers of different length? Toes of different sizes? NO tail??
5/1/20159 Adaptations Reproductive adaptations- how an organism reproduces and looks after its young. Elephants have a gestation (pregnancy) period of two years and baby elephants are quite developed. Dandelions produce hundreds of seeds that blow away in the wind. *These are two types of reproductive adaptations.
5/1/ Adaptations The more adaptations an organism has the better it can survive in it's environment. Some organisms easily adapt to a new environment and survive better than the organisms that occur naturally in that environment. HOW WELL CAN YOU ADAPT???
5/1/ Adaptations Animals that are better adapted to their environment survive and reproduce. Animals not well adapted to an environment may not survive(die). Characteristics are passed in the genes of future generations. Those characteristics that don't help the species survive slowly disappear.(6 fingers/dwarfism)
5/1/ Adaptations An example of this in the cane toad, which is an introduced species to Australia (Queensland). It has several adaptations that make it suitable to it's new environment: it lays large numbers of eggs in almost any body of water every few weeks.
5/1/ What is it? Lay many eggs at a time (about 50), in holes in the ground called burrows. Dig pretend burrows to confuse animals that may be looking for eggs to eat. Only 3-10 babies actually survive to be adults. It takes the eggs about 8-10 weeks to hatch, then takes baby organism about 2 years to become mature adults.
5/1/ What is It? Court and mate between April and June. Usually eggs are laid in mid-late summer. Eggs are oval in shape and have a leathery feel to them. The female buries these eggs about 5 inches below the surface. When the sun heats the sand, the sand, in turn, heats the eggs. In about days, the eggs hatch.
5/1/ Gila monster
5/1/ Adaptations Porcupines mate in late summer and early fall. Porcupines are very vocal during mating season. Males often fight over females. They perform an elaborate dance and spray urine over the heads of the female.
5/1/201518Adaptations Newborns climb up the mother's fur and into her pouch where they find a teat. Some babies do not find their way to the pouch and die. Only babies who find one of the thirteen teats will survive. Stay in the pouch and suckle for days. Afterwards, they move out of the pouch and spend another four to six weeks on their mother's back.
5/1/ Adaptations An opossum mother may have as many as 25 babies, but she usually will have between seven to eight. The reason opossums have so many babies to insure that some of them survive. Like most marsupials, opossums are very small when they are born – about the size of a navy bean.
5/1/ Adaptations Reproduce once a year, with mating activity beginning in January when rivers and wetlands are covered with ice. A 107 to 110 day gestation period follows, with an average of three to four young born. At birth the kits (young) are fully furred, have their eyes open and incisor teeth visible. Consumes wood as main food.
5/1/ Adaptations Designed for life in the sea. Some species spend as much as 75% of their lives in the water. (They lay their eggs and raise their chicks on land.) A streamlined body, paddle-like feet, insulating blubber, and watertight feathers all add to their efficiency and comfort underwater. They also have a remarkable deep-diving ability.
5/1/ Penguins Black and white countershading makes them nearly invisible to predators from above and below.
5/1/ Adaptations Unlike bony fishes, young develop within the protection of the mother ’ s body. The eggs are protected by a tough, fibrous case that usually attaches to plants or rocks on the sea bottom till the young hatch. Most reproduce from embryos that hatch from eggs and continue to grow in the uterus until fully developed.
5/1/ Great White shark
5/1/ Adaptations Highly social colonies In the more primitive species, such as the Ponerine family, the reproductive duties are diverse. There may be a queen present, or there may not.
5/1/ Adaptations Queens in arctic conditions employ several adaptations to deal with the short season in which it is necessary to establish a colony. Winter may not break until mid-May and the summer season can be as short as two months. Queens must forage for their food, rear a brood, and establish a nest, fending for themselves until workers can be born to allow the colony to grow.
5/1/ Adaptations Arctic bumblebee queens were found flying and foraging on the very first day of snowmelt when willow blossoms. This is an indicator that the earliest available food source, has appeared. The queens also displayed accelerated rates of foraging.