Presentation on theme: "Vertebrates Animals that have a backbone."— Presentation transcript:
1 Vertebrates Animals that have a backbone. Only 5% of all organisms on Earth are vertebrates!Unlike invertebrates which have exoskeletons, vertebrates have an endoskeleton.
2 Exoskeleton Vs. Endoskeleton InvertebrateHard outer coveringProtectsDoes not grow with animalMust shed and form a new one: moltingAnimal is unprotected for a time until the new exoskeleton growsHeavy—animals are small compared to ones with an endoskeletonEndoskeletonVertebrateInternal support systemProtects and allows movementSpecialized to protect the internal organsGrows with the animalNot as heavy as an exoskeleton, allows for larger animals
3 Exceptions!! Turtles have an endoskeleton and an exoskeleton. Jelly Fish don’t have either one, they can change shape at will.
4 And the Vertebrates Are…. FishAmphibiansReptilesBirdsMammalsAll of these species has a backbone but they all have different adaptations that fit their environment.
5 Fish Most vertebrates are fish Most diverse group Adapted for life under the waterGills remove oxygen from water and exchange it for carbon dioxide in the fish’s bloodSwim bladder allows the fish to adjust how high or low it floatsLateral line is an organ in the sensory system that allow fish to sense objects and organisms that are nearby.Sexual reproduction, lay eggs
6 Fish: 3 GroupsJawless: lampreys and hagfish, most similar to the first fish that lived on EarthJawless fish do not have stomachs and cannot chew although they do have teethCartilaginous: Sharks, rays and skates, skeletons are made of cartilage.Bony: 96% of fish are in this categoryMost have scales, jaws, teeth and several pairs of fins
7 Amphibians First group of animals to live on land Two pairs of leg Lay eggs in waterObtain oxygen through their smooth, moist skin and many also have lungsSensory organs are adapted for sensing on landSexual reproduction, lay eggs that do not have hard shells
8 Life Cycle of Amphibians Eggs hatch in waterThe larva are called tadpolesTadpoles have gills, eat algae and move by pushing with their tailsAs the tadpole grows it develops lungs, legs and its tail shrinksThe gills stop functioning and it is ready to live on the land
9 Reptiles Evolved after amphibians Survive in hotter and dryer environmentsTwo pairs of legsTough, dry skin covered by scalesRespiratory organs called lungsSensory organs are adapted for sensing on landSexual reproduction, lay eggs with hard shell on land
10 EctothermsBoth Reptiles and Amphibians are Ectotherms: their body temperature changes with the environment.Adaptations for staying at the correct body temperature include: living near water, being able to slow their body processes during winter, standing on two feet to reduce the surface area in contact with hot sand.
11 Birds Have feathers and a beak Four limbs: a pair of scaly legs and a pair of wingsSexually reproduce, eggs have hard shellsEndotherms: maintain a constant body temperatureGenerates heat by consuming foodThis adaptation allows for diverse range of habitatBirds can shiver to stay warmFluff their feathers to cool offSeek shelter from the hottest part of the day
12 Adaptations for Flight Endoskeleton: some of the bones are fused without joints. This makes the bird lighter but not as flexible.Wings and FeathersRespiratory system: air sacs and lungs move air constantly through the bird’s body.Hollow bonesNo heavy jaw bone or teeth, they grind their food in an organ called the gizzard.Highly developed sense of sight and hearing
13 Mammals Hair during some part of their lives Specialized teeth for consuming particular types of foodHair and body fat are adaptations for controlling body temperatureProduce milk to feed their youngEndothermsSexual reproduction with the baby developing inside the mother in almost all species
14 Speaking of Babies Fish lay eggs and leave Amphibians also lay eggs and have nothing further to do with their offspringReptiles leave the eggs once they are laid usually. Alligators and Crocodiles will protect their nests until the eggs hatch.Birds incubate their eggs and care for the youngMammals care for their young, sometimes as long as 18 years or more!!
15 QuestionsDescribe how you would determine if an animal was a salamander or a lizard.Imagine that you live in Mexico and you have a pen pal who lives in Iceland. Both of you want to know about animals in the other person’s country. Which of you will be more likely to have seen wild reptiles? Why?