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Vertebrates Animals that have a backbone.

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Presentation on theme: "Vertebrates Animals that have a backbone."— Presentation transcript:

1 Vertebrates Animals that have a backbone.
Only 5% of all organisms on Earth are vertebrates! Unlike invertebrates which have exoskeletons, vertebrates have an endoskeleton.

2 Exoskeleton Vs. Endoskeleton
Invertebrate Hard outer covering Protects Does not grow with animal Must shed and form a new one: molting Animal is unprotected for a time until the new exoskeleton grows Heavy—animals are small compared to ones with an endoskeleton Endoskeleton Vertebrate Internal support system Protects and allows movement Specialized to protect the internal organs Grows with the animal Not as heavy as an exoskeleton, allows for larger animals

3 Exceptions!! Turtles have an endoskeleton and an exoskeleton.
Jelly Fish don’t have either one, they can change shape at will.

4 And the Vertebrates Are….
Fish Amphibians Reptiles Birds Mammals All of these species has a backbone but they all have different adaptations that fit their environment.

5 Fish Most vertebrates are fish Most diverse group
Adapted for life under the water Gills remove oxygen from water and exchange it for carbon dioxide in the fish’s blood Swim bladder allows the fish to adjust how high or low it floats Lateral line is an organ in the sensory system that allow fish to sense objects and organisms that are nearby. Sexual reproduction, lay eggs

6 Fish: 3 Groups Jawless: lampreys and hagfish, most similar to the first fish that lived on Earth Jawless fish do not have stomachs and cannot chew although they do have teeth Cartilaginous: Sharks, rays and skates, skeletons are made of cartilage. Bony: 96% of fish are in this category Most have scales, jaws, teeth and several pairs of fins

7 Amphibians First group of animals to live on land Two pairs of leg
Lay eggs in water Obtain oxygen through their smooth, moist skin and many also have lungs Sensory organs are adapted for sensing on land Sexual reproduction, lay eggs that do not have hard shells

8 Life Cycle of Amphibians
Eggs hatch in water The larva are called tadpoles Tadpoles have gills, eat algae and move by pushing with their tails As the tadpole grows it develops lungs, legs and its tail shrinks The gills stop functioning and it is ready to live on the land

9 Reptiles Evolved after amphibians
Survive in hotter and dryer environments Two pairs of legs Tough, dry skin covered by scales Respiratory organs called lungs Sensory organs are adapted for sensing on land Sexual reproduction, lay eggs with hard shell on land

10 Ectotherms Both Reptiles and Amphibians are Ectotherms: their body temperature changes with the environment. Adaptations for staying at the correct body temperature include: living near water, being able to slow their body processes during winter, standing on two feet to reduce the surface area in contact with hot sand.

11 Birds Have feathers and a beak
Four limbs: a pair of scaly legs and a pair of wings Sexually reproduce, eggs have hard shells Endotherms: maintain a constant body temperature Generates heat by consuming food This adaptation allows for diverse range of habitat Birds can shiver to stay warm Fluff their feathers to cool off Seek shelter from the hottest part of the day

12 Adaptations for Flight
Endoskeleton: some of the bones are fused without joints. This makes the bird lighter but not as flexible. Wings and Feathers Respiratory system: air sacs and lungs move air constantly through the bird’s body. Hollow bones No heavy jaw bone or teeth, they grind their food in an organ called the gizzard. Highly developed sense of sight and hearing

13 Mammals Hair during some part of their lives
Specialized teeth for consuming particular types of food Hair and body fat are adaptations for controlling body temperature Produce milk to feed their young Endotherms Sexual reproduction with the baby developing inside the mother in almost all species

14 Speaking of Babies Fish lay eggs and leave
Amphibians also lay eggs and have nothing further to do with their offspring Reptiles leave the eggs once they are laid usually. Alligators and Crocodiles will protect their nests until the eggs hatch. Birds incubate their eggs and care for the young Mammals care for their young, sometimes as long as 18 years or more!!

15 Questions Describe how you would determine if an animal was a salamander or a lizard. Imagine that you live in Mexico and you have a pen pal who lives in Iceland. Both of you want to know about animals in the other person’s country. Which of you will be more likely to have seen wild reptiles? Why?

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