Time Period City founded between 4500-3000 B.C.E Diplomatic reforms started around 594 B.C.E Under Macedonian rule 339-168 B.C.E Under Roman control between 168 B.C.E to 330 A.D.
Geography Surrounded by mountains Situated on river Focal point for many trade routes
Political Structure Democratic Separated into three parts: Assembly Council Courts
Economic and Social Systems Slaves consisted of approx. 40%-80% of classical Athens’ population Population divided into four separate social classes based on wealth Trade and agriculture are main economic contributors
Art and Architecture Full size sculptures, Jewelry and Pottery Drama productions The Doric style is rather sturdy and its top (the capital), is plain. This style was used in mainland Greece and the colonies in southern Italy and Sicily. The Ionic style is thinner and more elegant. Its capital is decorated with a scroll-like design (a volute). This style was found in eastern Greece and the islands.
Science and Technology Mathematics Catapult Showers Pulleys Mining
Religion Athena was deemed the patron deity of Athens Believed in afterlife Pantheon Festivals
Time Periods 1194 – 1184 BCE: Trojan War 500 – 449 BCE: Greco-Persian War 431 – 404 BCE: Peloponnesian War
Geography Sparta is set into the coastal mountains of southern Greece It located on the banks of the Evrotas River, which provides rich soil for farming
Political Structure Rule is shared by two kings Kings were not absolute, there were also five elected officials who presided over a council of elders. They were often in charge while the kings were away.
Social Systems Hierarchy is based on military proficiency, at the top were Spartiates, followed by Mothakes, Perioikoi, and Helots. Women were very much respected for that time period. They enjoyed many of the same rights that men did, including education and land ownership.
Economic Systems Spartiates were banned by law from engaging in trade. Even coins were banned, the currency was iron bars. The allowed the Perioikoi class to engage in trade, they were the craftsmen, the weapon smiths, and the merchants.
Art and Science Art was commonplace in Spartan life, they were renown for their sculpture, music and dance Spartan metalwork was second to none
Religion The Spartans worshipped the usual pantheon of Greek gods. Sparta wasn’t associated with any particular deity. Greek religion put a heavy emphasis on sacrifice. Only by appeasing the gods could you gain intercession. Also, the Greeks believed fate overrode everything, and no god could change that.
Intellectuals Spartan literature is notoriously sparse. Much of what we know is discerned from other city-states writing about the Spartans.
Time Periods One of the oldest Greek cities Fought against Greece in the Persian Wars Burnt to the ground by Alexander the Great
Geography Thebes is set in the coastal valleys of central Greece West of Athens, between the Aegean and Ionian Sea
Political Structure Because of Thebes proximity to Athens, Theban politics were greatly influenced by them Not only was Thebes democratic, but they had a distinct party system much like our government
Economic and Social Structures Like politics, the Theban economy is similar to that of Athens As in other city-states, only Males born to Theban parents were considered citizens
Art, Science, Technology Thebes was the first Greek city to issue coins Thebes is richly connected to Greek legend and writing
Religion Thebes had the same religious structure of all the other Greek city-states
Intellectuals Thebes is intertwined in Greek myth and legend, it is the home of many of its stories Home of King Oedipus, titular character of the famous Greek play Also the birth place of Hercules
Troy For its time, Troy was a great city. It had a large population and covered a large area. It possessed superior architecture, it was able withstand the assault of the Greeks for ten years. It was mostly uninhabited during the classical age of Greece. It flourished before some of the other city- states existed.
Athens Athens is most known for it’s intellectual quality. Athens was a city of thought and philosophy. Athens is also said to have been the “leader” of the Greeks, with the Spartans providing military might. Considered the pinnacle of Greek civilization
Sparta Sparta had a very complex political system. It was part monarchy, part aristocracy, part democracy, part socialist and part military dictatorship. Sparta had a very strict hierarchy. Slaves were expendable and were often killed without reason. Spartans had a very developed sense of culture, dance and song was an integral part of life
Thebes Thebes was very similar to Athens in many ways Thebes is historically the location of many plays, legends and myths The most unique feature of Thebes is its ever- changing loyalty. They have fought with and against most of the other city states.
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