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Www.ifrc.org Saving lives, changing minds. IDRL Slide 1 IDRL Law and Legal Issues in International Disaster Response David Fisher, Coordinator IFRC Disaster.

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Presentation on theme: "Www.ifrc.org Saving lives, changing minds. IDRL Slide 1 IDRL Law and Legal Issues in International Disaster Response David Fisher, Coordinator IFRC Disaster."— Presentation transcript:

1 Saving lives, changing minds. IDRL Slide 1 IDRL Law and Legal Issues in International Disaster Response David Fisher, Coordinator IFRC Disaster Law Programme

2 Saving lives, changing minds. IDRL Slide 2 Why worry about legal preparedness for international disaster response?  More frequent natural disasters with larger impacts  More and different international responders  Few domestic rules

3 Saving lives, changing minds. IDRL Slide 3

4 Saving lives, changing minds. IDRL Slide 4 More and more varied responders NGOs Militaries

5 Saving lives, changing minds. IDRL Slide 5 Research shows that the lack of legal preparedness hampers int’l relief Research  27 legal case studies  Global survey  Regional forums Findings  Unnecessary delays and costs  Unnecessary relief items, poor coordination, lack of respect  Failure to account for the non- state sector

6 Saving lives, changing minds. IDRL Slide 6 Research shows that the lack of legal preparedness hampers int’l relief  Barriers  Initiation, visas, customs, radio use, taxes, professional qualifications, registration, transport, liability  Oversight gaps  Inappropriate items, ignoring standards, poor coordination, corruption  Bottom line  Aid is slower, more expensive, less effective, sometimes counter-productive

7 Saving lives, changing minds. IDRL Slide 7 A few anecdotes

8 Saving lives, changing minds. IDRL Slide 8 Regional Law Global & Regional Institutions Sectoral Law Bilateral Agreements Soft Law No Comphensive Int’l Regime Human Rights & Refugee Law RC /RC (Soft) Law

9 Saving lives, changing minds. IDRL Slide 9 Right to humanitarian assisance  Arguably derived from human rights to:  Food (which includes water)  Shelter  Clothing  Health (which includes sanitation)  But different from IHL  State is the duty-bearer  Arguably, if state cannot help, it must seek outside support – but nothing stops it from being selective about its partners

10 Saving lives, changing minds. IDRL Slide 10 Some “sectoral” treaties on disaster response Tampere Convention (1998) Chicago Convention, Annex 9 (2004) Kyoto Convention (1973) Istanbul Convention (1990) Framework Convention on Civil Defense (2000) Convention on Maritime Traffic (1965) Food Aid Convention (1999) Nuclear Accident Convention (1986) Safety Protocol (2005) Int’l Health Regs (rev 2005)

11 Saving lives, changing minds. IDRL Slide 11 Tampere Conv. Kyoto Conv. Kyoto. Ann. J.5 Istanbul Conv. Istanbul Ann. B.9 Chicago Conv. Maritime Conv. UN Safety Conv. UN Safety Protocol Civil Defence Conv. Nuclear Conv. Intl Health Regs Djibouti Eritrea Ethiopia Kenya No Somalia So. Sudan 2011 Sudan s Nos 1990No s Tanzania Uganda 2002 Yes

12 Saving lives, changing minds. IDRL Slide 12 Trend to regionalize Inter-American Convention CDEMA Agreement CAPRADE Agreement CEPREDENAC Agreement EC CPM NATO MOU BSEC Agreement CIS Agreement IGAD ECOWAS SADC AU Policy Framework ASEAN Agreement SAARC Agreement APEC Strategy SOPAC Agreement SCO Agreement Arab League Agreement OIC DM Office

13 Saving lives, changing minds. IDRL Slide 13 “Soft Law” Resolutions UN GA Res 46/182 (1991) UN GA Res 57/150 (2002) Guidelines and Charters Oslo Guidelines on the Use of Military and Civil Defense Assets in Disaster Relief (rev’d 2007) FAO Voluntary Guidelines on Right to Food (2004) IASC Guidlines on Protection in Natural Disasters (2006) Codes and Standards Red Cross/NGO Code of Conduct (1994) Sphere Charter and Minimum Standards (2000) Principles of Good Humanitarian Donorship (2005)

14 Saving lives, changing minds. IDRL Slide 14 Major gaps and problems Treaties/hard law  Few parties  Thematic limits  Inconsistent rules  Most ignore non-governmental sector Global coordination systems  Some affected states feel excluded  Difficulty involving everyone  Lack of binding standards

15 Saving lives, changing minds. IDRL Slide 15 International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement  National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies  International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies  International Committee of the Red Cross

16 Saving lives, changing minds. IDRL Slide 16  Status Agreements  Statutes of the Movement  Roles of the components (auxiliary role of National Societies)  fundamental principles  Principles and Rules  mechanisms for assistance between components  Other resolutions on facilities for the Movement  visas, radio frequencies Red Cross/Red Crescent (Soft) Law

17 Saving lives, changing minds. IDRL Slide 17 IFRC Status Agreements in the region Djibouti No Eritrea No Ethiopia Yes Kenya Yes Somalia No South Sudan No Sudan In discussion Tanzania No Uganda Yes

18 Saving lives, changing minds. IDRL Slide 18 Legal preparedness at the domestic level: the IDRL Guidelines  Adopted by consensus by the state parties to the Geneva Conventions in 2007  Promoted by name in 8 UN GA resolutions  Recommendations to governments on how to prepare their own domestic laws and procedures for international assistance  9 new laws or regulations / 11 pending, 20 formal reviews

19 Saving lives, changing minds. IDRL Slide 19  Personnel  Visas  Work permits  Professional qualifications  Goods and equipment  Customs clearance and duties  Food, vehicles, telecoms, medicines  Transport  Domestic legal status  Power to open bank accounts, contract, etc.  Taxes  Security  Extended hours  Costs The IDRL Guidelines’ proposed legal facilities

20 Saving lives, changing minds. IDRL Slide 20  Aid providers always:  Abide by domestic and international law  Coordinate with domestic authorities  Abide by humanitarian principles  To the greatest extent practicable, they:  Meet int’l quality standards  Coordinate with other actors  Involve beneficiaries  Use fully trained personnel  Build on local capacities The IDRL Guidelines’ standards

21 FOR MORE INFORMATION, PLEASE VISIT: OR CONTACT: INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF RED CROSS AND RED CRESCENT SOCIETIES P.O. BOX 372 CH-1211 GENEVA 19 SWITZERLAND TEL.: FAX.:


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