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The Cold War. Results of WWII Much of Europe and Japan are destroyed Much of Europe and Japan are destroyed Death Toll Death Toll 41 million civilian.

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Presentation on theme: "The Cold War. Results of WWII Much of Europe and Japan are destroyed Much of Europe and Japan are destroyed Death Toll Death Toll 41 million civilian."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Cold War

2 Results of WWII Much of Europe and Japan are destroyed Much of Europe and Japan are destroyed Death Toll Death Toll 41 million civilian 41 million civilian 25 million military 25 million military Allies occupy defeated nations Allies occupy defeated nations U.S. and U.S.S.R are left as world powers U.S. and U.S.S.R are left as world powers

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4 Germany’s fate Berlin is divided into 4 separate zones Berlin is divided into 4 separate zones Germany is split into East and West Germany is split into East and West The Marshal Plan- $13,000,000,000 to rebuild Europe The Marshal Plan- $13,000,000,000 to rebuild Europe Nuremburg Trial-Nazi war criminals are tried Nuremburg Trial-Nazi war criminals are tried

5 Occupation of Japan Douglas Macarthur oversees rebuilding in Japan Douglas Macarthur oversees rebuilding in Japan U.S. spends $2,000,000,000 to rebuild Japan U.S. spends $2,000,000,000 to rebuild Japan U.S. writes a new constitution for Japan U.S. writes a new constitution for Japan

6 United Nations United Nations is created United Nations is created 5 permanent countries on the security council: America, Soviet Union, China, France, Great Britain 5 permanent countries on the security council: America, Soviet Union, China, France, Great Britain

7 Creation of Israel In 1947 the nation of Israel is created In 1947 the nation of Israel is created Many Holocaust survivors and Jewish WWII veterans immigrate Many Holocaust survivors and Jewish WWII veterans immigrate Arab Muslims are angry about presence of Jewish country Arab Muslims are angry about presence of Jewish country

8 The Cold War begins With no common enemy, the U.S. and U.S.S.R alliance crumbles With no common enemy, the U.S. and U.S.S.R alliance crumbles The Western Allies liberate Western European countries The Western Allies liberate Western European countries Stalin denies Eastern European countries free election and takes control Stalin denies Eastern European countries free election and takes control Winston Churchill dubs it an “Iron curtain” Winston Churchill dubs it an “Iron curtain”

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10 U.S. fights Communism Truman recognizes communism as a threat Truman recognizes communism as a threat Truman Doctrine- Provides economic aid to countries fighting communism Truman Doctrine- Provides economic aid to countries fighting communism CIA- Central Intelligence Agency is formed CIA- Central Intelligence Agency is formed

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12 America after the war Economy booms after the war Economy booms after the war Returning GIs given government grants Returning GIs given government grants GI Bill- money for college GI Bill- money for college Loans to buy houses Loans to buy houses Truman wins upset reelection in 1948 Truman wins upset reelection in 1948 Fair Deal Fair Deal

13 Crisis in Berlin In 1948, The Soviet Union prevents supplies from being delivered In 1948, The Soviet Union prevents supplies from being delivered An Airlift is conducted to supply city An Airlift is conducted to supply city 5000 tons of supplies lifted daily 5000 tons of supplies lifted daily blockade dropped nearly a year later blockade dropped nearly a year later

14 Cold War escalates Russia develops atomic weapons Russia develops atomic weapons NATO- alliance of democratic states NATO- alliance of democratic states Warsaw Pact- alliance of Eastern Europe Warsaw Pact- alliance of Eastern Europe Communist leader Mao Zedong gains control of China Communist leader Mao Zedong gains control of China

15 The Red Scare McCarthyism-Senator Joseph McCarthy accused U.S. officials of being communist McCarthyism-Senator Joseph McCarthy accused U.S. officials of being communist J. Edgar Hoover and the FBI investigate suspected communists J. Edgar Hoover and the FBI investigate suspected communists House of Un-American Activities Committee- anti-communist government agency House of Un-American Activities Committee- anti-communist government agency

16 The Korean Crisis Containment Policy- If Communism is contained, it will die out. Containment Policy- If Communism is contained, it will die out. Domino theory- If one country falls to Communism, others will follow Domino theory- If one country falls to Communism, others will follow June 25, 1950 North Korea invades South Korea across the 38 th Parallel June 25, 1950 North Korea invades South Korea across the 38 th Parallel South Korea nearly falls South Korea nearly falls

17 America goes to war U.N. passes a resolution to aid south Korea U.N. passes a resolution to aid south Korea With U.S. aid the attack is stalled With U.S. aid the attack is stalled Macarthur plans an amphibious landing at Inchon Macarthur plans an amphibious landing at Inchon UN forces counter-attack pushing North Korea back across the 38 th Parallel UN forces counter-attack pushing North Korea back across the 38 th Parallel

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19 Korean War ends China enters war on North Korean side China enters war on North Korean side UN forces pushed back to 38 th Parallel UN forces pushed back to 38 th Parallel The war entered into a stalemate for the next two years The war entered into a stalemate for the next two years ceasefire signed on July 27 th, 1953 ceasefire signed on July 27 th, 1953

20 America during the 50s Eisenhower elected in 1952 Eisenhower elected in 1952 Baby boomers- generation born to WWII veterans Baby boomers- generation born to WWII veterans Americans begin to move to the suburbs Americans begin to move to the suburbs Television increases in popularity Television increases in popularity Rock’n’roll music becomes popular Rock’n’roll music becomes popular Jonas Salk creates vaccine for Polio Jonas Salk creates vaccine for Polio

21 Arms Race U.S. and U.S.S.R develop the hydrogen bomb U.S. and U.S.S.R develop the hydrogen bomb ICBM- Inter-continental ballistic missile ICBM- Inter-continental ballistic missile MAD- mutually assured destruction MAD- mutually assured destruction

22 Spy games The U.S. and U.S.S.R use spies against each other The U.S. and U.S.S.R use spies against each other Julius and Ethel Rosenberg are executed for espionage Julius and Ethel Rosenberg are executed for espionage U-2 incident- American spy plane shot down over U.S.S.R U-2 incident- American spy plane shot down over U.S.S.R embarrassment for U.S. embarrassment for U.S.

23 Space Race U.S. and U.S.S.R engage in competition to put first man in space U.S. and U.S.S.R engage in competition to put first man in space Sputnik 1- in 1957 the Soviet Union launches the first artificial satellite into space. Sputnik 1- in 1957 the Soviet Union launches the first artificial satellite into space. In 1961 Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin becomes first man in space In 1961 Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin becomes first man in space A month later Alan Shepard becomes first American in space A month later Alan Shepard becomes first American in space In 1969 Neil Armstrong becomes first man on the moon In 1969 Neil Armstrong becomes first man on the moon

24 Election of 1960 John F. Kennedy v. Richard Nixon John F. Kennedy v. Richard Nixon First televised debates First televised debates Nixon arguably wins debates, but Kennedy presents a better image Nixon arguably wins debates, but Kennedy presents a better image Kennedy is elected Kennedy is elected

25 Berlin Wall Many Eastern Berliners wish to flee to the West to escape Soviet oppression Many Eastern Berliners wish to flee to the West to escape Soviet oppression Soviet Union wants to stop the “brain drain” Soviet Union wants to stop the “brain drain” A fortified wall is constructed separating East and West A fortified wall is constructed separating East and West

26 Cuba Communist Fidel Castro takes power of Cuba in 1959 Communist Fidel Castro takes power of Cuba in 1959 U.S. is uncomfortable with Communism so close to America U.S. is uncomfortable with Communism so close to America Bay of Pigs- covert operation formed to oust Castro from power Bay of Pigs- covert operation formed to oust Castro from power Operation fails, looks bad for U.S. Operation fails, looks bad for U.S.

27 Cuban Missile Crisis In 1962 air photography showed missiles being built in Cuba In 1962 air photography showed missiles being built in Cuba President Kennedy instituted a blockade of Cuba President Kennedy instituted a blockade of Cuba Russia agrees to remove missiles from Cuba if U.S. removes missiles from Turkey Russia agrees to remove missiles from Cuba if U.S. removes missiles from Turkey Hotline between Moscow and Washington is installed Hotline between Moscow and Washington is installed


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